During the remainder of this study a great deal of detail wil presented to

During the remainder of this study a great deal of

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“politics.” During the remainder of this study, a great deal of detail will be presented to indicate the grim reality behind the so-called slogans of capitalism, imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, and the like. For the present moment, the position to be adopted can be stated briefly in the following terms: The question as to who, and what, is responsible for African under- development can be answered at two levels. First, the answer is that the operation of the imperialist system bears major responsibility for African economic retardation by draining African wealth and by making it im- possible to develop more rapidly the resources of the continent. Second, one has to deal with those who manipulate the system and those who are of Western Europe were the ones who actively extended their exploitation from inside Europe to cover the whole of Africa. In recent times, they were joined, and to some extent replaced, by capitalists from the United States; and for many years now even the workers of those metropolitan countries have benefited from the exploita- tion and underdevelopment of Africa. None of these remarks are intended
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28 HOW EUROPE UNDERDEVELOPED AFRICA to remove the ultimate responsibility for development from the shoulders of Africans. Not only are there African accomplices inside the imperialist system, but every African has a responsibility to understand the system and work for its overthrow. Brief Guide to Reading There is a great deal of literature on “development” and “underdevelop- ment,” although less than one would expect in view of the importance of the subjects. Most of that which is available seeks to justify capitalism. Hence, there is a narrow concentration on “economic development,” and particularly on capitalist economies, rather than any analysis of human social development. That approach is challenged by Marxist writers in the metropoles and increasingly by scholars from the underdeveloped world. F rederick E ngels , Origins of the Family, Private Property and the State. Chicago: C. H. Kerr and Co., 1902. K arl M arx , Preface to a Contribution to a Critique of Political Economy. K arl M arx , Pre-Capitalist Economic Formations, edited by E. J. Hobsbawm. New York: International Publishers, 1964. These three works are samples of writing by the founders of what is now called Marxism. Most of the publications of Marx and Engels have a relevance to the theme of development, with particular emphasis on feudal and capitalist times. R ichard T. G ill , Economic Development: Past and Present. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall, 1967. R agnar N urkse , Problems of Capital Formation in Underdeveloped Countries. Oxford University Press, 1953. These are typical examples of bourgeois metropolitan views on development and underdevelopment—the first being a text for North American college students by a Canadian economist and the second being a frequently reprinted work of one of the most prominent bourgeois advocates of the “vicious circle of poverty” theory. Unfortunately, these are also examples of the kind of book which dominates the shelves of any university or public library in Africa. The
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