With reflection methods one can locate and map such

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With reflection methods, one can locate and map such features as anticlines, faults, salt domes, and reef. Many of these are associated with the accumulation of oil and gas. Major convergences caused by depositional thinning can be detected from reflection sections. The resolution of the method is now approaching a fineness adequate for finding stratigraphic traps such as pinch outs or faces changes. However, successful exploration for stratigraphic oil accumulations by reflection techniques requires skilful coordination of geological and seismic information. 6.0Tutor Marked Assignment Q1. a) What is seismic reflection? b) What do you understand by the term acoustic impedance of a rock? Q2. Explain with the aid of diagram the following a) Multiple reflection b) Simple multiple c) Peg leg d) Intraformational multiples Q3 State the dix formular and define all the parameters and variable. Q4. What is normal moveout? Derive a moveout equation for a horizontal reflector. 7.0References/ Further Readings Kearey, P., Brooks, M. and Hill, I. (2002) An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration (Third Edition), Blackwell Science, Oxford, 262 pp. John, M. (2003) Field Geophysics (Third Edition). John Wiley and Sons Ltd. England, 249pp
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36 McCann, D.M., Fenning, P. and Cripps, J. (Eds) (1995) Modern Geophysics in Engineering Geology, Engineering Group of the Geological Society, London, 519 pp. Mussett, A.E. and Khan, M.A. (2000) Looking into the Earth: An Introduction to Geological Geophysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 470 pp. Parasnis, D.S. (1996) Principles of Applied Geophysics (Fifth Edition Chapman & Hall, London, 456 pp. Reynolds, J.M. (1997) An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics, Wiley, Chichester, 796 pp. Sharma, P.V. (1997) Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 475 pp. Telford, W.M., Geldart, L.P., Sheriff, R.E. and Keys, D.A. (1990) Applied Geophysics (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 770 pp. Whitely, R.J. (Ed.) (1981) Geophysical Case Study of the Woodlawn Orebody, New South Wales, Australia, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 588 pp. Hawkins, L.V. (1961) The reciprocal method of routine shallow seismic refraction investigations. Geophysics, 26 , 806–19.
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37 Unit 2 Reflection Surveys 1.0 Introduction Reflected waves are never first arrivals, so clear-cut reflection events are seldom seen. Oil-industry techniques for improving signal-to-noise ratios can be used for shallow work and simple versions of the programs used are incorporated in the software supplied with the latest generation of 12- and 24- channel seismographs. 2.0 Objectives At the end of the unit, readers should be able to (i) Give a descriptive treatment of the more important aspects, concentrating on the developing fundamental of reflection surveys. (ii) Know that reflection survey techniques are therefore widely used in oil industry for exploring oil.
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  • Winter '12
  • JOHN
  • Geophysics, Seismic Waves, Cambridge University Press, Love wave, Rayleigh wave, P-wave

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