Largest invasion in europe until d day in normandy

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largest invasion in Europe until D Day in Normandy-the Athenian navy was sent to Artemision to stall the Persians-the Greeks were betrayed-all the Spartans were massacred-Persians wonKing Leonidas of Sparta:-hero of Thermopylae (narrow pass – 50 ft wide)-led Spartans and Greeks in battle against Xerxes at Thermopylae-A Greek betrayed him and told the Spartans where they were camping-All the Greeks and Spartans present died, including King LeonidasSimonides, AGW, p.49“Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by, that here, obeying their commands, we lie.”Queen Artemesiaof Halicarnassus:-advisor to Xerxes-advised him to evacuate Athens-Athens was evacuated-The Persians invaded and burned Athens (under Xerxes’s lead)-advised Xerxes to fight a land battle at the Ismus and also a sea battleThemistocles:-fight a naval battle at Salamis-battle won by the Athenians
-Persians lost and went back up NorthThis marks the start of the Delian league, an alliance of Greek states led by AthensNext Spring, the Greeks marched north to meet the rest of the Persian army at Plataia the final land battle between the Persians and the Greeks:-the Persians were slaughtered by the Greeks and the Spartans on land-the same day, at another land battle at Mycale , the Greeks navy defeated the Persian navy and all the Greeks held captive in Ionia are freed from Persian rule-a victory tripod was erected (holds gold bowl)1 – Ionian revolts2 – Battle of Marathon3 – Battle of Thermopylae4 - Naval battle at SalamisIn conclusion, the Persian Wars:-were a major turning point in Western history-were an embarrassment for the Persians (defeat)-boosted the Greeks’ self-confidence (victory)-Spartans and Athenians began to see each other as rivalsOctober 26th– Democracy in Athensdemos = peoplekratia = power/ruleThe principles of democracyare liberty, freedomand equality-freedom to participate in politics as equals-freedom to liveThe world’sfirstdemocracy was in the AthenianacropolisAtticais the polis of AtheniansThe astuis the political centre of the polisThere were 4 tribes in the early Archaic age:-they were led by 9 archons: Basileus, Eponymous& Polemarchus(+6 recorders) – chosen by lottery-the archons were born into their positions, they were also wealthy-they held office for 1 year-Areopagus– the council
-Ekklesia– the people-Thetes – poor people, peasantsThe first steps of democracy:-Draco’s laws’publication-Solon’s reforms:ointroduced principles of personal freedomochanged the requirements for holding officeointroduced law courtsCleisthenes:-the father of democracy-replaced 10 tribes by a council of 500The council of 500:-contained 50 people form each tribe-people had to be 30 + years old-they served for 2 years-were chosen by a lotteryevery year-were audited at the end of their year in officeThe assembly:-rejected, approved and amended resolutions-people had to be 18 + years oldOstracism:-negative popularity-to eliminate tyranny-was done once a year in April-ostrakon:

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