- Two years later, in 1923, Alice Paul drafted and promoted an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) that promised to end all sex discrimination by guaranteeing that: “Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction.” Harlem Renaissance - The black population of NYC doubled during the decade. As a result, Harlem, a neighborhood at the northern end of Manhattan. - Revived by the wartime migration and fired up by the white violence of the postwar riots , urban blacks developed a strong cultural expression in the 1920s that came to be known as the Harlem Renaissance . - W. E. B. Du Bois One of the founders of the NAACP , a brilliant writer and scholar, and the first African American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard, Du Bois openly rejected assumptions of white supremacy. His conception of Negro nationalism: - encouraged Africans to work together in support of their own interests
The Lost Generation - promoted the elevation of black literature and cultural expression - most famously embraced the African continent as the true homeland of all ethnic Africans – a concept known as Pan-Africanism Marcus Garvey - Jamaican immigrant had become utterly disillusioned with the prospect of overcoming white racism in the United States in the wake of the postwar riots and promoted a “Back to Africa” movement. - Black Star Steamship Line . - United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), which attracted thousands of primarily lower-income working people. UNIA members wore colorful uniforms and promoted the doctrine of a “ negritude ”. - Anti-Saloon League finally succeeded in pushing through the 18th Amendment in 1919 , which banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating liquors. Unintended consequences - Home-brewed “moonshine.” The result was an eroding of respect for law and order, as many people continued to drink illegal liquor. Political Division: - The Democratic Party found itself deeply divided between: - 1) urban , northern “ wets ” who hated the idea of abstinence - 2) rural , southern “ dries ” who favored the amendment - By 1927 , Capone’s organization included a # of illegal activities including bootlegging, prostitution, gambling, loan sharking, and even murder. His operation was earning him more than $100 million annually, and many local police were on his payroll. Known as the Lost Generation , writers like F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, Edith Wharton, and John Dos Passos expressed their hopelessness and despair by skewering the middle class in their work. - They felt alienated from society, so they tried to escape (some literally) to criticize it. Many lived an expatriate life in Paris for the decade, although others went to Rome or Berlin .