Reduction in reservoir and tank levels and depletion

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reduction in reservoir and tank levels and depletion of soil moisture and groundwater. This on a continuous basis leads to reduce availability of fodder, decline in agricultural production and livestock wealth, besides causing misery to people inhabiting these areas. The drought characteristics and associated problems vary from area to area, depending upon the amount of variability of available water supplies and the demand of water for specified users. Classification of drought Generally the drought could be clustered into meteorological drought, agricultural drought, hydrological drought, and societal /economic drought (Wilhite and Glantz , 1987). Meteorological drought is characterized by the water storage induced by the imbalance between precipitation and evaporation, in particular, water shortage based solely on precipitation e.g. rainless situation. Meteorological drought over an area is defined as a situation when seasonal rainfall over the area is less than 75% of its long term normal. It is further classified as moderate drought uni01C1 if the rainfall deficit is between 26to 50% and severe drought uni01C1 when it exceeds 50%.A list of some of the definitions is given in WMO (1975). Agricultural drought refers to the water storage caused by the imbalance between soil available water and the water requirement of crops. It is related to physiological drought determined from conditions of crops, natural vegetation, livestock pasture and other agricultural systems. The agricultural drought occurs when water deficit severely affects the agricultural system as a whole. Some agriculturists have measured the effect of water deficit in terms of economical losses induced by the deficit. The economical loss can include factor like drop in crop production, livestock deaths industrial losses, plants not planted, changes in land use, emergency relief expenses etc. Hydrological drought is represented by the water shortage formed by the imbalance budget of surface water and underground water. It is mainly affected by various hydrological factors such as surface run off, shallow and deep underground water etc. The water resources in the form of precipitation, infiltration, river systems and other surface /ground water, inflow/outflow system may be included in the hydrological water balance equation as fallow: W=G – L Where, W=available water for the system use. G=total incoming water of the system (precipitation, infiltration, storage, etc) L=total water loss (evaporation, run off etc.) Hydrological drought occurs when the water demand by the hydrological system greatly exceed the water available from the system use (W)from the water balance equation it is clear that precipitation is the most common natural factor which may induce hydrological drought. Finally socio-economic drought is associated with the supply and demand of some economic goods. It occurs as an interaction between agricultural activity (i.e. demand) and natural events (i.e. supply) which results in a water volume or quality inadequate for plants and / or animals needs.
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