exploitation such as poverty and undocumented immi gration status Kim 2011 One

Exploitation such as poverty and undocumented immi

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exploitation, such as poverty and undocumented immi- gration status (Kim, 2011). One limitation of the Biderman framework is that it does not specifically consider the role of physical or sex- ual violence, versus the threat of violence, or address the synergistic effects of psychological coercion combined with physical and/or sexual abuse. Trafficked persons, along with survivors of other forms of violence, are at high risk for acute and chronic health problems including depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, insomnia, headaches, gastrointestinal problems, back pain, pelvic pain, and myriad other issues (Campbell & Lewandowski, 1997; Hossain et al., 2010; McCauley et al., 1995; Zimmerman et al., 2008), but the role that non- physical coercion plays in creating and contributing to these problems remains unclear. As noted above, the con- nection between psychological coercion and health, like the link between physical or sexual violence and health, is complex and likely mediated by multiple physiological and psychological systems. As an exploratory, qualitative project, this study has a number of limitations. The small sample size and recruit- ment of survivors through one NGO, in one metropolitan area, means that the information provided by survivors might not represent the full range of experiences of traf- ficking survivors in the United States. The circumstances and personal characteristics of women who successfully leave a situation of trafficking and subsequently connect with support services likely vary from those of individu- als who remain under the control of traffickers, those who escape but remain socially isolated or unable to access services, and those who choose not to pursue aftercare services. Because rapport was easily established with each par- ticipant, and many personal stories shared, at the time of data collection we did not identify a need for more than one interview session per participant. However, in re- reviewing transcripts for this manuscript, we came across an instance where a survivor became upset about abuse she experienced and said she could not talk about it “today.” It is possible that a second interview with this survivor would have yielded additional important infor- mation about her experience. In addition, we recognize that the women’s ages, time spent in trafficking, type of trafficking, and length of time receiving post-trafficking services could all influence their experiences and their perceptions, but the small sample size of our study
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Baldwin et al. 1179 precluded such analyses. We focused instead on the com- monality of identified themes and sub-themes. This study targeted only women who were trafficked, so it does not address the data gap on the effects of traf- ficking on men. In addition, we interviewed only adult survivors of international trafficking. Though some had been trafficked as minors, our findings might not apply to adolescents or children trafficked to or within the United States. Notably, however, advocates who work with com-
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