lecture+13+competition-prednew

Two species system consider the two graphs below each

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Two-Species System
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Consider the two graphs below, each of which represents a possible interaction between two competitors. Case 1: Case 2 What will be the outcome of competition in each case? How do they differ?
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Thinking in biological terms what does this graph show?
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Evidence for Competition Leading to Co-Existence Character Displacement
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Predation “classical” predation (an animal killing and eating another) parasitism (a smaller organism eats a larger one, and may or may not kill its host) herbivory (an animal eats (part of) a plant, and may or may not kill it disease (a really small organism derives its nutrition from its host, and may or may not kill it)
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Wolves in Yellowstone Wolves were present naturally but were exterminated by people in the 1920s. Populations of elk then grew substantially, to the point where winter starvation of elk became a frequent phenomenon. Wolves were re-introduced into Yellowstone in 1995/96 despite considerable opposition from surrounding landowners concerned for their livestock. Bumper sticker “Wolves are state- supported terrorists”
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Modeling Predation There are simple, general ways of describing and modeling predation. They consider two types of predator responses to prey: Functional responses are an increase in the number of a particular prey consumed by an individual predator when that prey is more abundant Numerical responses are increases in the predator population in response to an increase in prey population.
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Christopher Reinemann
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