Primary visual cortex also known as the striate

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primary visual cortex , also known as the striate cortex, is located within the occipital lobes. This cortex receives most of its input from the visual relay nuclei of the thalamus. It is the largest visual area and functions as a major destination for visual information. It is located in both brain hemispheres; the right visual cortex receives information from the left visual field and vice versa. (G, H & H, WB, Wiki) 16. In a small section of the frontal lobes is the primary olfactory cortex. It receives input from the olfactory relay nuclei of the thalamus. It is involved with the process of smell information, the most ancient sense. The largest division of the primary olfactory cortex is the pyriform cortex. This cortex is located in the junction of the anterior-medial temporal lobe and the ventral-posterior frontal lobe. (WB, "Sylvius Neuroanatomical Reference / Glossary Index / Primary Olfactory Cortex." Sylvius Neuroanatomical Reference . Web. 21 Feb. 2012. < olfactory_cortex.html>. 17. Within the basal ganglia is the nucleus accumbens , also known as the accumbens nucleus or the nucleus accumbens septi. It is a collection of nerves specifically located between the striatum and the basal forebrain. The nucleus accumbens is especially important for experiencing reward. The experience of a pleasurable stimulus activates dopamine neurons in the nucleus accumbens, releasing dopamine. It is thought to also play a role in pleasure, addiction, fear, aggression, laughter, and the placebo effect. (G, H & H, Wiki) 18. Within the mesencephalon, or midbrain, is the substantia nigra . This part of the brain is important for addiction, movement, and reward. It consists of two parts, the pars compacta and the pars reticulata. The pars compacta serves as an input to the basal ganglia circuit by supplying dopamine. In contrast, the pars reticulata serves as an output by sending signals from the basal ganglia to other parts of the brain. Also contains the cell bodies of the neurons of the mesotelencephalic dopamine system. (Wiki, WB) 19. The mesotelencephalic dopamine system is an extensive pathway involved in self-stimulation. This system plays an important role in experiencing pleasure and stretches from the frontal cortex to the amygdala to the nucleus accumbens.
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Research shows that this system is important in motivated behaviors, such as self- administering addictive drugs, sexual behavior, and eating habits. This system has its cell bodies in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It also contains the nigrostriatal pathway, which is damaged in cases of Parkinson’s disease. (WB) 20. Medial to the substantia nigra is the ventral tegmental area . This area contains the cell bodies of many neurons that compose the mesotelencephalic dopamine system. It is located close to the midline of the forebrain and is important in cognition, drug addiction, motivation and reward. The neurons of this area project to vast parts of the brain including the prefrontal cortex, the brainstem, and everywhere in between. (WB, Wiki) 21. On the inferior surface of the frontal lobes is the orbitofrontal cortex . In this part of the brain, cortical processing influences the limbic system. It is also believed to
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  • Fall '10
  • Felipe
  • primary motor cortex, primary visual cortex

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