based on physical deficits and the resulting need to compensate for them. But all of us, because of our small size during childhood, encounter feelings of inferiority to some degree. These feelings lead to a powerful drive for superiority, which motivates us to achieve prominence and social dominance. In the healthy personality, however, striv- ings for dominance are tempered by devotion to helping other people. Adler, like Jung, believed self-awareness plays a major role in the formation of per- sonality. Adler spoke of a creative self, a self-aware aspect of personality that strives to overcome obstacles and develop the individual’s potential. With the hypothesis of the creative self, Adler shifted the emphasis of psychodynamic theory from the id to the ego. Because our potentials are uniquely individual, Adler’s views have been termed individual psychology. Some psychodynamic theorists, such as Karen Horney (1885–1952) (pronounced HORN-eye), stressed the importance of child–parent relationships in the development of emotional problems. She maintained that when parents are harsh or uncaring, chil- dren come to develop a deep-seated form of anxiety called basic anxiety, which she described as a feeling of “being isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world” (cited in Quinn, 1987, p. 41). Children who harbor deep-seated resentment toward their parents may develop a form of hostility she labeled basic hostility. She shared with Freud the view that children repress their hostility toward their parents because of an underlying fear of losing them or of suffering reprisals or punishment from them. However, repressed hostility generates more anxiety and insecurity. With Horney and other psychodynamic theorists who followed Freud, the emphasis shifts from a focus on sexual and aggressive drives toward a closer examination of social influences on development. More recent psychodynamic models also place a greater emphasis on the self or the ego and less emphasis on the sexual instinct than Freud. Today, most psychoan- alysts see people as motivated on two tiers: by the growth-oriented, conscious pur- suits of the ego as well as by the more primitive, conflict-ridden drives of the id. Heinz Hartmann (1894–1970) was one of the originators of ego psychology, which posits that the ego has energy and motives of its own. The choices to seek an educa- tion, dedicate oneself to art and poetry, and further humanity are not merely defen- sive forms of sublimation, as Freud had seen them. Erik Erikson (1902–1994) was influenced by Freud but became an important theo- rist in this own right. He focused on psychosocial development in contrast to Freud’s emphasis on psychosexual development. Erikson attributed more importance to social ego psychology Modern psychodynamic approach that focuses more on the conscious strivings of the ego than on the hypothesized unconscious functions of the id.
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- Abnormal Psychology