If extended for more than a couple generations

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If extended for more than a couple generations, becomes hereditary (ascribed) Slaves and upper class can intermix whereas upper class and outcastes cannot Slaves can be freed, outcastes cannot lose their status Slaves can come from highest caste Social Mobility and Open vs. Closed Systems Social mobility-  whether class/position can be changed Open stratification-  can change class/position easily
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Chapter 12: Stratification and Inequality 22:26 Closed stratification-  can’t change class/position easily Horizontal mobility-  movement one occupation to another in same stratum Vertical mobility-  movement up or down in strat system (lower to middle class) Intergenerational mobility-  changes in position in stratification system by different  generations of family members (ex. Son attains higher class than father) Intragenerational mobility- mobility that occurs within a person’s lifetime (poverty to riches)
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Chapter 13: Inequality and Achievement 22:26 Social Class and Inequality Income-  amount of money individual or family receives in wages, salaries, investments Wealth-  total value of assets owned by individual or family, minus amount of debt they  have Where one begins in social stratum has big effect on where one ends up Four areas where class origins have big effects on life chances: Health:  parental class position has long-term health consequences for children Education:  Parental income has an effect on whether children finish high school and  attend and graduate from college Working life:  Men who grew up in poor families tend to work many fewer hours per year  and to earn less per hour than men who grew up in middle-class homes Crime and Justice:   Poor people are more likely to be victims of all kinds of crime and  more like to run into trouble with the law Explaining Social Stratification Members of each new generation tend to reproduce class structure in which they were  raised.  There are two perspectives on the dynamics which cause this: Cultural explanations 2 assumptions: People in different social classes have different patterns of values, beliefs, and  behavioral norms which they pass on to their children through the socialization process Values, beliefs, and behavioral norms of lower classes are not very compatible with  success in society Cultural poverty-  culture of poverty turns poverty into a vicious cycle.  Children absorb  values of their poor parents and are psychologically unready to take advantage of  changing conditions or improving opportunities that may develop in their life time Structural explanations Focus on the limited access to opportunities that poor people have compared to the  more affluent.  Differences in values, beliefs, norms are consequences of poverty rather  than causes
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