Study of factors affecting the health and illness of

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Study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations What is epidemiology Evidence-based science for identifying risk factors for disease and determining optimal treatment approaches to clinical practice. Communicable and non-communicable diseases A communicable disease is caused by microorganisms Transmitted through: people, animals, surfaces, foods or air.
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33 The work of epidemiologists : - outbreak investigation - study design - data collection and analysis including the development of statistical models to test hypotheses - documentation of results for submission to peer- reviewed journals. Governmental health agencies spend a great deal of time and money studying the risk or spread of various contagious diseases in order to : - identify outbreaks - prevent reoccurrences - develop treatments
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35 July 1976 Bellevue-Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia 58th Annual Convention of the American Legion 149 legionnaires and 72 others in the hotel Fever, coughing and pneumonia 34 deaths CDC identified bacteria = Legionella pneumophila Legionnaires’ Disease
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36 What epidemiologists do 1) Recognize that an epidemic is in progress 2) Define circumstances under which it spreads - pattern of distribution - recommendations on controlling it prevent, control, or treat disease
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37 Terminology Surveillance = monitoring health of population Epidemic = unusually high incidence of disease in a given population Pandemic = epidemic of infectious disease that spreads through populations across a large region • Prevalence = total number of cases of a disease in a defined population Cohort = a group of people that share characteristics
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