jurafsky&martin_3rdEd_17 (1).pdf

Sentences with imperative structure often begin with

Info icon This preview shows pages 174–176. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Sentences with imperative structure often begin with a verb phrase and have Imperative no subject. They are called imperative because they are almost always used for commands and suggestions; in the ATIS domain they are commands to the system. Show the lowest fare Give me Sunday’s flights arriving in Las Vegas from New York City List all flights between five and seven p.m. We can model this sentence structure with another rule for the expansion of S : S ! VP Sentences with yes-no question structure are often (though not always) used to Yes-no question ask questions; they begin with an auxiliary verb, followed by a subject NP , followed by a VP . Here are some examples. Note that the third example is not a question at all but a request; Chapter 29 discusses the uses of these question forms to perform different pragmatic functions such as asking, requesting, or suggesting. Do any of these flights have stops? Does American’s flight eighteen twenty five serve dinner? Can you give me the same information for United? Here’s the rule: S ! Aux NP VP
Image of page 174

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
11.3 S OME G RAMMAR R ULES FOR E NGLISH 175 The most complex sentence-level structures we examine here are the various wh- structures. These are so named because one of their constituents is a wh-phrase , that Wh-phrase is, one that includes a wh-word ( who, whose, when, where, what, which, how, why ). Wh-word These may be broadly grouped into two classes of sentence-level structures. The wh-subject-question structure is identical to the declarative structure, except that the first noun phrase contains some wh-word. What airlines fly from Burbank to Denver? Which flights depart Burbank after noon and arrive in Denver by six p.m? Whose flights serve breakfast? Here is a rule. Exercise 11. 7 discusses rules for the constituents that make up the Wh-NP . S ! Wh-NP VP In the wh-non-subject-question structure, the wh-phrase is not the subject of the Wh-non-subject question sentence, and so the sentence includes another subject. In these types of sentences the auxiliary appears before the subject NP , just as in the yes-no question structures. Here is an example followed by a sample rule: What flights do you have from Burbank to Tacoma Washington? S ! Wh-NP Aux NP VP Constructions like the wh-non-subject-question contain what are called long- distance dependencies because the Wh-NP what flights is far away from the predi- Long-distance dependencies cate that it is semantically related to, the main verb have in the VP . In some models of parsing and understanding compatible with the grammar rule above, long-distance dependencies like the relation between flights and have are thought of as a semantic relation. In such models, the job of figuring out that flights is the argument of have is done during semantic interpretation. In other models of parsing, the relationship between flights and have is considered to be a syntactic relation, and the grammar is modified to insert a small marker called a trace or empty category after the verb.
Image of page 175
Image of page 176
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern