Level of Difficulty 3 Hard Topic Hierarchy culture 124 Describe what research

Level of difficulty 3 hard topic hierarchy culture

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Level of Difficulty: 3 HardTopic: Hierarchy culture
124.Describe what research has found about the outcomes associated with organizational culture. Both managers and academic researchers believe that organizational culture can drive employee attitudes, performance, and organizational effectiveness, thereby leading to competitive advantage. To test this possibility, various measure of organizational culture have been correlated with a variety of individual and organizational outcomes. A meta-analysis involving over 1,100 companies uncovered the results shown in Figure 14.4.Figure 14.4 illustrates the strength of relationships among eight different organizational outcomes and the culture types of clan, adhocracy, and market: Hierarchy was not included due to a lack of research on this type. Results reveal that the eight types of organizational outcomes had significant and positive relationships with moderate strength, indicating that they are important to today's mangers. Closer examination of Figure 14.4 leads to the following five conclusions:(1) Organizational culture is related to measures of organizational effectiveness. This means that an organization's culture can be a source of competitive advantage.(2) Employees are more satisfied and committed to organizations with clan cultures. These results suggest that employees prefer to work in organizations that value flexibility over stability and control and those that are more concerned with satisfying employees' needs than customer or shareholder desires.(3) Innovation and quality can be increased by building characteristics associated with clan, adhocracy and market cultures into the organization. Managers may want to use a combination of all three types of culture to produce these outcomes.(4) An organization's financial performance (growth in profit and growth in revenue) is not strongly related to organizational culture. Managers should not expect to increase financial performance immediately by trying to change their organization's culture.(5) Companies with market cultures tend to have more positive organizational outcomes. Managers are encouraged to consider how they might make their cultures more market oriented.AACSB: Analytical ThinkingBlooms: RememberKinicki - Chapter 14 #124Learning Objective: 14-02 To what extent are the different types of organizational culture related to important outcomes?Level of Difficulty: 3 HardTopic: Competing values framework
125.Briefly describe at least six mechanisms that leaders can use to create culture change. For each, identify what level of culture is being addressed. Schein notes that changing organizational culture involves a teaching process. Organizational members teach each other about the organization's preferred values, beliefs, norms, expectations, and behaviors. He further articulates specific mechanisms for changing organizational culture, and from his writing we identify 12 of the most potent, summarized in Table 14.1(1) Formal Statements. This method for embedding culture relies on using formal statements of

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