that there are general exception rules that allow the breaking of other rules if such rule-breaking increases happiness, one example being self-defense. Critics argue that this reduces rule utilitarianism to act utilitarianism and makes rules meaningless. Rule utilitarians retort that rules in the legal system (i.e. laws) that regulate such situations are not meaningless. Self-defense is legally justified, while murder is not. However there is within rule utilitarianism a distinction between the strictness and absolutism of this particular branch of utilitarianism. There is Strong Rule Utilitarianism which is an absolutist theory which frames strict rules which apply for all people and all time and may never be broken. Weak Rule utilitarianism however was the branch of utilitarianism that was proposed by John Stuart Mill and entailed that although rules should be framed on previous examples that benefit society; such as do not lie, it is possible under specific circumstances to do that which produces the greatest happiness and to break that rule. An example would be the Gestapo asking where your Jewish neighbours were... A strong rule utilitarian might say that the rule "Do not lie" can never be broken, whereas a weak rule utilitarian would argue that to lie would be the result that would produce the most happiness Rule utilitarianism should not be confused with heuristics (rules of thumb), but many act utilitarians agree that it makes sense to formulate certain rules of thumb to follow if they find themselves in a situation whose consequences are difficult, costly or time-consuming to calculate exactly. If the consequences can be calculated relatively clearly and without much doubt, however, the rules of thumb can be ignored. [ edit ] Collapse of rule utilitarianism into act utilitarianism It has been argued  that rule utilitarianism collapses into act utilitarianism, because for any given rule, in the case where breaking the rule produces more utility, the rule can be sophisticated by the addition of a sub-rule that handles cases like the exception. This process holds for all cases of exceptions, and so the 'rules' will have as many 'sub-rules' as there are exceptional cases, which, in the end, makes an agent seek out whatever outcome produces the maximum utility. 
Corporate social responsibility (CSR), also known as corporate responsibility , corporate citizenship , responsible business , sustainable responsible business (SRB) , or corporate social performance ,  is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. Ideally, CSR policy would function as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby business would monitor and ensure its adherence to law, ethical standards, and international norms. Business would embrace responsibility for the impact of their activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere. Furthermore, business
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