earthquakes chpt 10 study guide

Catastrophic subsidence into sinkholes tends to occur

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27. Catastrophic subsidence into sinkholes tends to occur more often in areas underlain by __________________. A. acidic freshwater flowing through limestone B. basic freshwater flowing through limestone C. acidic saltwater flowing through sandstone D. basic freshwater flowing through sandstone E. basic saltwater flowing through sandstone 28. Liquefaction can occur by which of the following processes? 29. The most likely explanation for how highly fluidized rock flows occur is that __________________. 30. There are about two million mass movements of earth materials each year in the United States, typically causing about $1.5 billion in damages and 25 deaths. True False 31. Creep is an ultra-slow, almost imperceptible upslope movement of the soil and uppermost bedrock zones. True False 32. Ground surfaces do not sit still; they move up and down. True False 33. The volume of soil does not stay constant but instead swells and shrinks. True False 34. Whether it is by natural or human processes, anything that steepens a slope moves it closer to failure. True False 35. Clays are among the least abundant of all sediments. True False 36. Clay crystals are composed of thin subparallel sheets, like the pages in a book. True False 37. There are certain times when a hill containing clay minerals is weaker than at other times, and then gravity has a better chance of provoking a slope failure. True False
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38. The mechanical or strength characteristics of a rock are usually governed by the 10 to 15 percent of the rock with the coarsest grain size. True False 39. Quick clays are among the least mobile of all deposits and so provide favorable building sites. True False 40. Water is both absorbed (internally) and adsorbed (externally) by clay minerals with resultant increases in strength. True False 41. Water molecules can attach their positive sides against clay minerals because clay surfaces are also positively charged. True False 42. Many mass movements and slope failures result from abnormally high pore-water pressures. True False 43. Despite what some old movies show, quicksand does not suck people or other objects down.
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