O because of our social identifications we conform to

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o Because of our social identifications We conform to our group norms Sacrifice ourselves for team, family and nation The more important our social identity and the more strongly attached we feel to a group the more we react prejudicially to threats from another group (Crocker & Luhtanen, 1990; Hinkle & others, 1992) o Ingroup bias Mere experience of being formed into groups may promote ingroup bias The tendency to favor one’s own group Supports a positive self-concept When our group has been successful make ourselves feel better by identifying more strongly with it Basking in the reflected glory of a successful ingroup is strongest Among those who have just experienced an ego blow Bask in the reflected glory on a friend’s achievement Except when the fried outperforms us on something pertinent to our identity (Tesser & others, 1988) Feeds favoritism We are group-conscious Given any excuse to think of ourselves as a group will do so Exhibit ingroup bias Self-serving bias Robber’s Cave Experiment (Sherif et al., 1954) 22 boys who signed up for summer camp at Robber’s Cave State Park in Oklahoma Three stages Group formation: Rattlers vs Eagles Friction / competition Integration (common enemy: failed water supply) Competition and group frustration can lead to hostile actions and prejudice to out-group and its members Explored how little it takes to provoke favoritism toward us and unfairness toward them (Tajfel, 1970) Minimal group study Arbitrary assignment to groups
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14-16 years old boys judged paintings by Klee or Kandinsky Were later referred as “Klee group” and “Kandinsky group” Told them that they and some other teens had favored the art of Klee over that of Kandinsky Without ever meeting the other members of their Klee-favoring group Were later asked to allocate points for different group members They could allocate for Maximum joint profit (MJP) or Maximum profit for the in-group (MIP) or Maximum difference (MD) Between points allocated for two groups Boys preferred MIP over MJP Preferred MD over MJP Act of categorization is sufficient to elicit in- group favoritism Incompatible group interests are not always necessary for intergroup discrimination We are more prone to ingroup bias when Our group is small Lower in status relative to the outgroup (Ellemers & others, 1997) Must ingroup liking foster outgroup disliking? Ingroup bias reflects Liking for the ingroup Dislike for the outgroup Outgroup stereotypes prosper When people feel their ingroup identity keenly Such as when they are with other ingroup members (Wilder & Shapiro, 1991) When anticipating bias against our group We more strongly disparage the outgroup (Vivian & Berkowitz, 1993) Ascribe uniquely human emotions to ingroup members More reluctant to see such human emotions in outgroup members (Demoulin & others, 2008; Leyens & others, 2003, 2007) Infrahumanization Long history of denying human attributes to outgroups
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