explain the results from the initial quantitative phase of the study? See Designing Research 07-Creswell (RD)-45593:07-Creswell (RD)-45593.qxd 6/20/2008 4:37 PM Page 138
Research Questions and HypothesesCreswell & Plano Clark, 2007). The second form is to write it in a waythat conveys the contentof the study (e.g., Does the theme of social sup-port help to explain why some students become bullies in schools? (seeTashakkori & Creswell, 2007.)●Consider several different ways that all types of research questions(i.e., quantitative, qualitative, and mixed) can be written into a mixedmethods study:•Write separate quantitative questions or hypotheses and qualita-tive questions. These could be written at the beginning of a study •Write separate quantitative questions or hypotheses and qualita-tive questions and follow them with a mixed methods question. •Write only a mixed methods question that reflects the proceduresorthe content(or write the mixed methods question in both a proce-dural and a content approach), and do not include separate quan-titative and qualitative questions. This approach would enhance 139 Example 7.8Hypotheses and Research Questions in aMixed Methods StudyHoutz (1995) provides an example of a two-phase study with the separatequantitative and qualitative research hypotheses and questions stated insections introducing each phase. She did not use a separate, distinct mixedmethods research question. Her study investigated the differences betweenmiddle-school (nontraditional) and junior high (traditional) instructionalstrategies for seventh-grade and eighth-grade students and their attitudestoward science and their science achievement. Her study was conducted at apoint when many schools were moving away from the two-year junior highconcept to the three-year middle school (including sixth grade) approach toeducation. In this two-phase study, the first phase involved assessing pre-test (Continued) 07-Creswell (RD)-45593:07-Creswell (RD)-45593.qxd 6/20/2008 4:37 PM Page 139
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