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of respiratory infections and allergies . combination with high temperatures, indoor humidity levels also lead to the growth of mould.Particulate MatterThere are two categories of particle matter: the first are coarse dust particles between 2.5 and 10 micrometres (μm) in diameter, known as PM10. Examples of PM10 particles include dust,pollen, and mould. The second category includes fine particles with diameters of 2.5 μm or less, known as PM2.5. PM2.5 particles are produced from solid fuel combustion and industrial processes. In the US, the 24-hour average maximum level for PM2.5 is 35 μg per cubic metre (μg/m3) and 12 μg/m3 as an annual average. For PM10, the short-term limit is 150 μg/m3. There is currently no long-term standard. In the UK/EU, the annual average exposure for PM2.5 and PM10 should not exceed the limits of 25 μg/m3 and 40 μg/m3, respectively . A cohort study by the American Cancer Society tracked 1.2 million American adults for 26 years (1982–2008) and discovered that the mortality of lung cancer increased by15–27% when PM2.5 air concentrations increased by 10 μg/m3. Total Volatile Organic CompoundsVolatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of concern as both indoor and outdoor air pollutants. Common VOCs include trichloroethylene, benzene, toluene, alcohols, and acrolein. VOCs are mostly reported as total VOC (TVOC) readings. This term recognises the combined effectof compounds that may not otherwise have been captured, due to low concentration levels. A low TVOC value usually indicates that there is no VOC problem; however, a high TVOC value may result from a high level of a single compound or from a vast collection of low compound levels . Major contributors to TVOC levels in residences are household products, tobacco smoke, deodorants, and building materials. The health effects of high TVOC concentrations include nausea, dizziness, eye irritation, headaches, and fatigue . Sources indicate that TVOC concentrations between 50 and 325 ppb are acceptable and should not exceed 500 ppb.
Part CThe discussion was clearly written with relevant support from literature and explained accuratelyThe global public health emergencyAir pollution is a global public health emergency. 92% of the world’s population lives in places where air quality exceeds WHO limits. About 6.5 million deaths – 1 in 9 deaths worldwide –is due to air pollution-related diseases. Air pollution is one ofthe largest causes of the four top noncommunicable diseases stroke, lung cancer, chronic respiratory disease and heartdisease – accounting for between one-third and one-quarter of those deaths. Air pollution is also responsible for 50% of childhood pneumonia deaths.Major impacts on health, development and climate• Fine particulate matter (PM) is one of the most health-damaging air pollutants also classified as carcinogen. Fine PMpenetrates through the lungs into the bloodstream causing both respiratory and cardiovascularimpacts.