Module_06_Lab_Worksheet_05142018.docx

Pancreatic juice and bile is secreted into the small

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bicarbonate. Pancreatic juice and bile is secreted into the small intestine near the duodenal sphincter. Materials Whole milk and Lactose Free milk Starch solution Urinalysis test strips Rennet Bleach Lactaid Enzyme Tablets Pig specimens Dissection trays and kits Litmus (pH paper) Pre-Lab Evaluation Questions The pre-lab evaluation questions must be answered prior to lab and demonstrated to your lab instructor. You must read through the assigned chapter readings, lab introduction, objectives, overview and procedure to answer these questions. Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these questions. 1. In your own words, describe the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tube? The GI tract consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine, and the rectum/anus. Its functions include ingestion, propulsion of food and waste from the mouth to the anus, secretion of mucous and other enzymes to aid in chemical digestion of food, mechanical digestion, absorption of water & nutrients, and elimination of waste (Betts, 2017). 2. In your own words, describe the anatomy and physiology of the stomach’s mucosa. Include the various cells and their appropriate secretions? There are four cells that make up the stomach’s mucosa. The Mucous neck cells secrete mucous to protect the stomach from chemicals of digestion, The Parietal cells secret hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factors necessary for destruction of microbes. Chief cells secrete digestive enzymes, and enteroendocrine cells secrete other hormones to increase appetite (Betts, 2017). 3. Describe the anatomy and physiology of the small intestine? Why surface area is important with the small intestine and how does it increase the surface? The small intestine is next in the GI tract after the stomach; it contains villi and microvilli to aid in increasing surface area. The small intestine allows for chemical digestion and absorption of most nutrients (Betts, 2017).
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4. The large intestine contains a lot of bacteria that are commonly referred to as the gut flora. What function do these bacteria have within the process of digestion and in our body? What can cause an imbalance to these bacteria and what complications could this lead to? They synthesize B vitamins and Vitamin K, they also aid in fermentation of some of the indigestible carbohydrates. Antibiotics can cause crapping, diarrhea, and kill normal flora (which can also cause C-Diff) (Betts, 2017). 5. In your own words, describe the condition of lactose intolerance, how it disrupts the digestive system function and how it is treated. Lactose intolerance is the inability of a person to create an enzyme called lactose which breaks down milk and dairy products. This can cause bloating, cramping, or diarrhea. Some medications or digestive supplements help; however, many people choose to avoid dairy products and use lactose free substitutes (Betts, 2017).
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