Bob cot swan c diphthongs ci combination of two vowel

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bob, cot, swan c. Diphthongs c.i. Combination of two vowel sounds c.ii. When produced, our vocal organs move from one vocalic position to another c.iii. [a ] ɪ buy, eye, I, my, pie, sigh (low towards high front) c.iv. [a ] ʊ bough, doubt, cow (low towards high back) c.v. [e ] ɪ bait, eight, great, late, say (mid towards high front) c.vi. [o ] ʊ boat, home, throw, toe (mid towards high back) c.vii. [ ] ɔɪ boy, noise (low towards high front) d. Subtle Individual Variation d.i. “Schwa” [ ] is the most common sound in English language. ə Chapter 4: The Sound Patterns of Language I. Phonology a. Essentially the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language b. Based on a theory of what every speaker of a language unconsciously knows about the sound patterns of that language
c. Concerned with the abstract set of sounds in a language that allows us to distinguish meaning in the actually physical sounds we say and hear II. Phonemes a. The smallest meaning distinguishing sound unit in the abstract representation of the sounds of a language b. Single stable sound type /t/, /f/, /v/ c. Contrastive property is the basic operational test for determining the phonemes that exist in a language, if we substitute one sound for another in a word and there is a change of meaning, then the two sounds represent different phonemes. d. Technical terms used in creating those charts can be considered “features” that distinguish each phoneme from the next d.i. If a feature is present, we mark it with (+), if not (-). d.ii. /p/ [-voice, +bilabial, +stop]. /k/ [-voice, +velar, +stop]. /v/ [+voice, +labiodental. +fricative] III. Phones and Allophones a. Phones – phonetic units that are produced in actual speech and appear in square brackets b. The prefix “allo” is added when there is a set of phones, all of which are versions of one phoneme. They are then referred to as allophones of that phoneme. c. Aspiration – the puff of air accompanying sounds coming out of the mouth d. Crucial distinction between phonemes and allophones is that substituting one phoneme for another will result in a word with a differing meaning (and different pronunciation), but substituting allophones only results in a different (perhaps unusual) pronunciation of the same word e. Nasalization – pronunciation of a sound with air flowing through the nose, typically before a nasal consonant, represented with (~) IV. Minimal Pairs and Sets a. Phonemic distinctions in a language can be tested via pairs and sets of words b. When two words are identical in form except for a contrast in one phoneme, occurring in the same position, the two words are described as a minimal pair . b.i. pat-bat, fan-van, bet-bat, site-side c. When a group of words can be differentiated, each one from the others, by changing one phoneme (always in the same position in the word), then we have a minimal set . c.i. feat, fit, fat, fate, fought, foot (vowel phonemes) c.ii. big, pig, rig, fig, dig, wig (consonant phonemes) V. Phonotactics a. Constraints on the permissible combination of sounds in a language b. Allows us to see that there are definite patterns in the types of sound combinations permitted in a language

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