Final Study Guides pharm.docx

Generic name assigned by the gov lower case

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Generic= name assigned by the gov, lower case, nonproprietary name (not a brand name) Trade= capital letter, 1 drug may have many trade names, must be FDA approved 21. What is an over the counter medication? Medication that can be bought without a prescription. Sometimes it is the dosage that is different, nit the medication, so if you need a higher dose, you will need a prescription. OTC medications can have adverse effects (Many people believe they don’t) 22. How do albumin levels potentially effect drug levels? Drugs can form bonds with proteins in the body ie plasma albumin. Binding is reversible. Drugs are either bound or free in circulation. If the drug remains bound it cannot leave the blood stream and is therefore not usable by the body. Binding sites are limited, the drug with the stronger affinity for albumin will usually ‘win’ and the drug not bound is free increasing the level of drug leading to toxicity. So, if someone has low albumin levels, decrease dose of med. 23. What is a loading dose? Why do we use them? Some medications need to be given at a higher dose for the first time to get into therapeutic range; I.E: Life threatening infection we can’t wait days to get them therapeutic. After the loading dose, medication can be given in smaller maintenance doses to keep it in the therapeutic range. Can over shoot, so unless it’s needed, don’t do it. 24. What is a therapeutic index? What does it mean if a drug has a narrow therapeutic index?
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Therapeutic index: Ratio if a drugs lethal dose to its effective dose; TI = median lethal dose/median effective dose. Larger the difference in these number = safer drug. A high TI – relatively safe A low TI- relatively unsafe (hard to keep in window Most drugs we will give have an average to wide range Take into account what is going on with the patient, pt in liver failure, so give lower dose. 25. Why should customers be leery of safety with dietary supplements? Manufacturer does not have to test for safety or efficacy. Thus products are exempt from meaningful FDA regulation. FDA can step in and remove if harmful. Dietary supplements are not a drug, so label must not say: diagnose, prevent, treat, or cure. 26. What is a black box warning? It is a requirement by the FDA that warns prescribers that the drug carries a risk for serious or fatal adverse effects. Providers do not have to tell pt the drug has this warning.
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UNIT 2 1. When is it okay to not give a child an immunization? Which immunizations are live vaccines? Do you give these to children with HIV? Contraindications for immunization Anaphylactic rxn to specific vaccination (should not receive that specific vaccination) Anaphylactic rxn to a vaccine component Eggs/gelatin = no MMR Eggs = no Influence (now there is an egg free option) Gelatin/neomycin = no Varicella Moderate or severe illnesses with or without a fever Live Vaccines – MMR, varicella, oral poliovirus Worry about immunocompromised pts and pregnant women (can be teratogenic to the infant – given to the mom after delivery and before being sent home)
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