●To counteract the widespread European view of the US as a cultural backwater, the CIA secretly fundedan array of overseas publications, conferences, publishing houses, concerts, and art exhibits. And to try to improve the international image of American race relations, the government sent jazz musicians and other black performers abroad, especially to Africa and Asia. The US helped arrange for exhibitions overseas in hopes of persuading Europeans not only that these paintings demonstrated that the US represented artistic leadership as well as military power, but that such art embodied the free, individual expression defined to artists in communist countries.b.Freedom and Totalitarianism
i.Define “Totalitarianism” in the Cold War●The term that describes aggressive, ideologically driven states that seek to subdue all of civil society to their control, thus leaving no room for individual rights or alternative values.ii.How did opposition to totalitarianism reshape the meaning of freedom in the Cold War? (Essentially, what was an easy way to discredit any type of idea of initiative?)●The idea of totalitarianism greatly exaggerated the totality of government control of private life and thought in these countries. But its widespread use reinforced the view that the greatest danger to freedom lay in an overly powerful government. Whatever Moscow stood for was by the definition the opposite of freedom, including anything to which the word “socialized” could be attached. c.The Rise of Human Rightsi.Define “Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.” What freedoms were protected?●It identified a broad range of rights to be enjoyed by people everywhere, including freedom of speech, religious toleration, and protection against arbitrary government, as well as social and economic entitlements like the right to an adequate standard of living and access to housing, education, and medical care. d.Ambiguities of Human Rightsi.Why were human rights concepts so hard to enforce between Soviet Union and the USA? ●Both the Soviet Union and US refused to accept outside interference in their internal affairs. ii.What were the Americans afraid of as far as Human Rights enforcement went?●They feared that it would lead to an international investigation of “the Negro question in this country.”4.The Truman Presidencya.The Fair Deali.What actions did the Federal government take in order to transition from wartime to peacetime economy?●The government abolished wartime agencies that regulated industrial productions and labor relations, and it dismantled wartime price controls, leading to a sharp rise in prices.
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