Module_04_Lab_Worksheet_04232018.docx

Innate immunity is a non specific response defense

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Innate immunity is a non-specific response defense mechanism that is activated within minutes to hours after foreign body invades (inflammation or fever). The adaptive immune response is an antigen-specific response and is a bit more complicated. T and B lymphocytes provide specific immunity against one pathogen regardless of exposure rate. The body must process and recognized the antigen and then create specific immune cells to attack the antigen. Adaptive immunity includes memory cells for future reference (Introduction to Immunology Tutorial, 2000). 4. In your words, briefly describe the difference between humoral and cellular adaptive body defenses. Humoral defenses activate B cells which produce antibodies that circulate the blood. Cellular defenses activate T-cells that identify and destroy infected cells (Betts, 2017). 5. What is the ELISA test and how does it work? The ELISA test measures antibodies in the blood, it can be used to determine if an individual has antibodies r/t certain diseases such as Lyme disease, HIV, etc. In the ELISA test, an unknown amount of antigen is bound to a surface and then a specific antibody is applied over the surface so that it can bind to the antigen. Lastly, a substance is added that can convert the enzyme to a color change in a chemical substrate (Betts, 2017). Part 01 Procedure: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses 1. Working in your lab groups, you will be tasked with presenting 1-3 of these six topics to the class:
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Using the concepts of primary adaptive responsive and secondary adaptive response, explain how vaccines work. A vaccine acts as the first exposure to an antigen so that your adaptive immunity has the ability to recognize a reoccurring exposure (Betts, 2017). Explain the signs and role inflammation has within our body. WBCs are sent to the affected tissues to protect your body. Histamines are released causing swelling, redness, and warmth (Betts, 2017). Compare and contrast the following immune disorders: immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity, and autoimmune immunity. immunodeficiency: The lack of immune defenses Hypersensitivity: Hyperactivity to everyday antigens Autoimmune immunity: When the immune system attacks its own cells and tissues (Betts, 2017). Part 02 Procedure: ELISA Testing 1. Your lab groups will be performing ELISA tests on ten different patients to determine their HIV status. 2. Working in groups of 2-4 students, follow the instructions provided by your lab instructor on how to perform the ELISA test for each patient. 3. Fill in the chart to track each patient’s results with the diagnosis: Well Number Patient Test Result Observations 1 Negative Control Neg Clear 2 Low Positive Control L + Light Orange 3 High Positive Control H+ Dark Red, Dark Orange (split) 4 Jan Neg Clear 5 Lynn Neg Clear 6 Baby Elizabeth L + Light Orange 7 Roger Neg Clear 8 Bob H+ Dark Red, Dark Orange (split)
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9 Tony Neg Clear 10 Richard H+ Dark Red 11 Tania Neg Clear 12 William H+ Transparent Red Part 03 Procedure: Agglutination of Blood 1.
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