Experience and reduce dissonance if he perfonns an

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experience and reduce dissonance if he perfonns an act inconsistent with his beliefs and if the act has aversive consequences for the person or others, and if the person perceives that he bears some personal responsibility for the act. (p. 424) Further experiments have demonstrated (a) that aversive consequences need not really occur, but that the subject must perceive that they are to occur, and (b) that these consequences must be irrevocable (Davis & Jones, 1960). The individual's assumption of responsibility is a key mediator of the dissonance experience and plays a critical role in our discussion of dissonance in group settings that follows. Cooper and Fazio (1984) define the assumption of personal responsibility as "the attribution that the locus of causation for an event is internal" (p. 236). To date, researchers have focused on two components of responsibility assumption: choice and foreseeability. Only if a person perceives that he or she engaged in a behavior of his or her own volition does a counterattitudinal action produce dissonance (e.g., Linder et al., 1967). An attribution that the behavior was the result of coercion will prevent the arousal of dissonance. In addition, dissonance will be aroused only if the aversive consequences of the behavior are judged by the subject to have been foreseeable (Goethals, Cooper, & Naficy, 1979).
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