E urban political machine bosses did not ally with

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e. Urban political machine bosses did not ally with their political opponents in the Protestant churches, the Republican Party, and big business to provide jobs, social services, and educational opportunities to the New Immigrants. Question 5 a. The leaders of the settlement house movement, such as Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, and Florence Kelley, were middle-class, well-educated, and reform- minded and based their educational, training, and social service operations in the immigrant neighborhoods of cities, such as New York and Chicago. b. The settlement house movement was motivated by a concern that if these female urban social reformers did not provide basic education and workforce training, child rearing and social service assistance, and the transmission of American cultural mores to these New Immigrants, these urban immigrants would not be able to assimilate successfully, destabilizing the social and economic cohesion of the cities where they resided. c. Settlement house leaders Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, and Florence Kelley forcefully advocated on behalf of state and national anti-sweatshop and child labor laws, which they perceived as critically important to maintaining the stability, health, and economic viability of the immigrant families that they served in their respective cities. d. Correct answer. Settlement house leaders, such as Jane Addams, became heavily involved in international efforts to advance worldwide peace and condemn war. Addams won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, and her pacifism motivated the Daughters of the American Revolution to expel her from their lineage-based membership because of virulent antiwar opinions. e. The pioneering direct service and political advocacy efforts of settlement house leaders, such as Addams, Wald, and Kelley, helped shape the new profession of social work and encouraged many women and some men to become professional social workers to assist urban and immigrant low-income families. Question 6 a. Jewish immigrant women tended to cluster in the blue-collar garment trades. b. Irish-American women who applied for these white-collar positions often found No Irish Need Apply signs restricting their workforce opportunities. Many Irish-American women served as textile workers, domestic servants, and hotel workers. c. While some college-educated women held these white-collar positions, a college education was not required for a woman to become a secretary, department store clerk, or telephone operator. Indeed, many college-educated women were expected to become wives and mothers shortly after graduation, and they either did not enter or quickly left the workforce because of the
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social stigma against married women and mothers working outside of the home. d. Correct answer. These lower-level, white-collar jobs were the near exclusive province of native-born female Americans, who were considered by their discriminatory employers to have the morals, demeanor, American accent, and English language skills required to represent the public face of these employers.
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