Arrived 5 the current situation is present have

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arrived ), (5) the current situation is present ( have arrived and not had arrived ). (1)-(4) coincide H and E are interchangeable may be considered text equivalents
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(2) Nida’s (1964) view on equivalence It is not the identity of situationally relevant features that is the main criterion for equivalence, but rather the identity of the receiver’s reaction 2 main types of equivalence: “formal equivalence” + “dynamic equivalence”
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Nida cont. Formal equivalence = if the translator attributes priority to the SL text , and tries to render the SL text as faithfully as possible, not only in its content but also in its form including (1) grammatical units, (2) consistency in word usage, (3) meanings in terms of the source context. to faithfully give back the grammatical units: (1) verbs are translated into verbs, and nouns into nouns, (2) the boundaries of the sentences remain unchanged, (3) punctuation, paragraphing, etc. also stay the same. E.g., classical text (Plato’s dialogues, to understand the essence of Plato’s philosophical system and to be able to follow the development of his terminology)
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Nida cont. Dynamic equivalence = “the closest natural equivalent” of the SL text to produce a “natural” translation, the translator has to bear in mind 3 important factors: (1) the receptor L and culture as a whole, adaptation on the level of (1.1) grammar: simple task, dictated by the structure of the L (1.2) lexicon: demanding task, may happen on 3 levels: (a) terms for which there are readily available parallels (e.g., river, tree, stone, knife , etc.) (b) terms which identify culturally different objects but with somewhat similar functions (e.g., book ) (c) terms which identify cultural specialities (e.g., synagogue, homer, cherubim ). (2) the context of the particular message (intonation, rhythm of sentences, style) (3) the receptor- L audience (translation should produce the same effect in the receptor L readers as the original piece did in the SL audience!)
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(3) Some other views on equivalence German translation research (Kade, 1968) 4 types of equivalences: total equivalence : a SL unit has a permanent equivalent in the TL (e.g., terms, institutional names), optional equivalence : a given SL unit has several equivalents in the target language (e.g., in German: Spannung, in English: voltage, tension, suspense, stress, pressure ) approximate equivalence : the meaning of a SL unit is divided between two TL equivalents (e.g., German: Himmel , English: heaven/sky ), zero equivalence: the SL unit does not have a TL equivalent (e.g., realia)
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Some other views cont. Gert Jäger’s (1975) view: communicative equivalence: the “communicative value” of the original text does not change in translation functional equivalence: the “functional value” of the text is preserved (= the sum of the functions of linguistic signs, the sum of their meanings) -- can be described with the tools of Lics
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What should be preserved in translation?
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