Criminalist and detective to work as a team in

This preview shows page 9 - 12 out of 18 pages.

Criminalist and detective to work as a team in solving a crime Bloodstain pattern analysis can provide strong reconstruction evidence
Generally, very useful in cases where an individual claim to have aided/ assisted an injured or dead person as explanation of blood on their clothing Great for determining cause of death whether it is a suicide, homicide, or accident - Tools used to reconstruct a scene are generally evidence taken from the crime scene that can be used to associate or disassociate a suspect to a crime o Associative evidence Hairs, fiber, blood, and other body fluids, paint, glass, firearms, bullets, fingerprints, and other imprint evidence Considered of unknown or questioned origin until a comparison is made to a known: Exemplar Primary focus of a forensic laboratory o Identification evidence Subdivision of associative evidence Positively provides for identification of the source of questioned evidence - Evidence can be looked at through the conclusions that the evidence facilitates - Forensic evidence comes into court in two basic forms: o Class- characteristic evidence Does not reference a suspect Illustrate the great value in a criminal investigation of statements drawing contextual lines for subsequent attempts to link a suspect to a crime scene-> by excluding other potential suspects Link a potential offender to a crime scene by testimony and individual characteristics The exclusionary potential of class or individual forensic findings is equally important: can eliminate a suspect or void a conviction based on the lack of adequate forensic evidence. Not considered unique and is part of a limited class along with other potential members Examiner must make all reasonable attempts to distinguish questioned samples from known standards Results may be that the questioned sample cannot be told apart from the known standard Conclusions regarding comparisons are limited -> the questioned sample cannot be said to be from that particular standard to the exclusion of all others o Individual characteristics Inferentially associate an individual with the commission of a crime Also, called matching statement that serves to link data found at the crime scene to a defendant Fingerprints, DNA profiles, some impressions, evidence of fracture matches Fingerprints are almost always accepted as evidence
DNA identification has been highly scrutinized and the forensic lab must provide stats to show the significance of the genetic profiling results o Becoming more and more insignificant Fracture matches are made when an unknown fractured piece that may have come from an automobile grill is matched to a known piece by comparison of the fractured edges of both samples - Determining the significance may include consideration of the location of the evidence, the type and quantity of evidence, condition of evidence, and crime scene reconstruction - We can categorize evidence by its scientific grouping: o Biological evidence (chap. 8 & 9) Typically, human tissue used for identification and individualization of human tissues constitute the focus of forensic bio

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture