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Criminalist and detective to work as a team in solving a crimeBloodstain pattern analysis can provide strong reconstruction evidence
Generally, very useful in cases where an individual claim to have aided/ assisted an injured or dead person as explanation of blood on their clothingGreat for determining cause of death whether it is a suicide, homicide, or accident-Tools used to reconstruct a scene are generally evidence taken from the crime scene that can beused to associate or disassociate a suspect to a crimeoAssociative evidenceHairs, fiber, blood, and other body fluids, paint, glass, firearms, bullets, fingerprints, and other imprint evidenceConsidered of unknown or questioned origin until a comparison is made to a known: ExemplarPrimary focus of a forensic laboratoryoIdentification evidenceSubdivision of associative evidencePositively provides for identification of the source of questioned evidence-Evidence can be looked at through the conclusions that the evidence facilitates-Forensic evidence comes into court in two basic forms:oClass- characteristic evidenceDoes not reference a suspect Illustrate the great value in a criminal investigation of statements drawing contextual lines for subsequent attempts to link a suspect to a crime scene-> by excluding other potential suspectsLink a potential offender to a crime scene by testimony and individual characteristicsThe exclusionary potential of class or individual forensic findings is equally important: can eliminate a suspect or void a conviction based on the lack of adequate forensic evidence.Not considered unique and is part of a limited class along with other potential members Examiner must make all reasonable attempts to distinguish questioned samples from known standardsResults may be that the questioned sample cannot be told apart from the known standard Conclusions regarding comparisons are limited -> the questioned sample cannot be said to be from that particular standard to the exclusion of all othersoIndividual characteristicsInferentially associate an individual with the commission of a crimeAlso, called matching statement that serves to link data found at the crime scene to a defendantFingerprints, DNA profiles, some impressions, evidence of fracture matchesFingerprints are almost always accepted as evidence
DNA identification has been highly scrutinized and the forensic lab mustprovide stats to show the significance of the genetic profiling resultsoBecoming more and more insignificant Fracture matches are made when an unknown fractured piece that mayhave come from an automobile grill is matched to a known piece by comparison of the fractured edges of both samples-Determining the significance may include consideration of the location of the evidence, the typeand quantity of evidence, condition of evidence, and crime scene reconstruction-We can categorize evidence by its scientific grouping:oBiological evidence (chap. 8 & 9)Typically, human tissue used for identification and individualization of human tissues constitute the focus of forensic bio