metals displace metals only if they are more reactive halogens displace anions

Metals displace metals only if they are more reactive

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metals displace metals only if they are more reactive halogens displace anions based on (F > Cl > Br > I) Double Displacement AB + CD ➡ AD + CB *one of the following must occur* produce a gas [ compounds decompose (H 2 CO 3 , H 2 SO 3 , NH 4 OH)] produce water (neutralization reaction) produce a salt (check solubility table)
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Nuclear Reactions alpha decay (element decomposes to alpha particle (mass 4, atomic number 2) and element with an atomic number that is two less than the original) — beta decay (element decomposes to beta particle (mass 0, atomic number -1 ) and an element with an atomic number that is one more than the original) — gamma decay (element decomposes to gamma particle (mass 0, atomic number 0) and an element with the same atomic number) — positron emission (element decomposes to positron (mass 0, atomic number 1) and an element with an atomic number that is one less than the original) — electron capture (element combined with an electron (mass 0, atomic number -1) turns into an element with an atomic number one less than the original) — nuclear fusion ( two smaller nuclei are fused together to form a larger nucleus (can only occur up till element 26 before collapsing) nuclear fission (nuclei can be further destabilized with the addition of more neutrons , causing the atom to fragment into 2 nuclei with more neutrons produced (increases exponentially) mass defect ( the difference in mass between a nucleus and its components (solved using E = mc 2 )
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Bonding : Intra. vs. Inter. (Molecular Forces w/ Polarity) Metallic Bonding elements lose electrons to form cations (these loose electrons “float” around the cations) cations all repel each other, but are held together by the delocalized electrons factors affecting metallic solids : number of electrons, charge, ionic radius physical properties : malleability (cations are not fixed, but always attached), conductivity (electricity easily flows over loose electrons), hardness (strong due to the overall hardness being determined through the sum of all FoA for all electrons) Ionic Bonding bond formed between metal (cation) and non-metal (anion) anions accept the loose electrons from the cation, bonding them together through an electrostatic FoA factors affecting ionic solids : charge, size of ions physical properties : malleability (brittle due to locked rows), hardness (hard due to ionic bonds being the strongest type of bonds), high melting and boiling points (a lot of heat and energy required to break bonds) NOTE : Difference in electronegativity gives value, determining the bond Polar covalent Ionic 0 1.7
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Covalent Bonding bonds occur between two nonmetals through the sharing of the electrons unequal distribution of electrons results in polar covalent bonds forming lower EN = partial positive charge, higher EN = partial negative charge — 3 types of solid possible through covalent bonding : Non-Polar Molecular (held together by dispersion forces ) Polar Molecular (held together by dipole-dipole forces )
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  • Winter '12
  • Mr.Pourkhatai
  • Atom, Charge, -1 charge

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