Observation watching behavior in real world settings

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Observation: watching behavior in real world settings, watching animals in the wild, Observing people in real life settings. - Case Study Designs : examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period. - Experimental studies : introduces a change and then monitors its effects. - Correlation: variables are said to be correlated when variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with variations in the value of the other Positive correlation: Both variables increase or decrease together Negative correlation: As one variable increases, the other decreases 20. Intrinsic motivation refers to behavior that is driven by internal rewards. In other words, the motivation to engage in a behavior arises from within the individual because it is naturally satisfying to you. - Extrinsic motivation refers to behavior that is driven by external rewards such as money, fame, grades, and praise. This type of motivation arises from outside the individual, as opposed to intrinsic motivation , which originates inside of the individual. 21. Confirmation Bias : the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and deny, dismiss, or distort evidence. - Confirmation bias (link is external) occurs from the direct influence of desire on beliefs. It can also be found in anxious individuals (link is external), who view the world as dangerous. 22. Positive Reinforcement
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- Positive reinforcement works by presenting a motivating/reinforcing stimulus to the person after the desired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior more likely to happen in the future. - The following are some examples of positive reinforcement: A mother gives her son praise (reinforcing stimulus) for doing homework (behavior). The little boy receives $5.00 (reinforcing stimulus) for every A he earns on his report card (behavior). A father gives his daughter candy (reinforcing stimulus) for cleaning up toys (behavior). Negative Reinforcement - Negative reinforcement occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence. - The following are some examples of negative reinforcement: Bob does the dishes (behavior) in order to stop his mother’s nagging (aversive stimulus). Natalie can get up from the dinner table (aversive stimulus) when she eats 2 bites of her broccoli (behavior). Joe presses a button (behavior) that turns off a loud alarm (aversive stimulus). Fixed-ratio, Variable-ratio, Fixed-interval: - Fixed-ratio : reinforce behavior after a set number of responses. Coffee shops may reward us with a free drink after every 10 purchased. - Variable-ratio : provide reinforcers after a seemingly unpredictable number of responses. This is what slot machine players and fly-casting anglers experience - unpredictable reinforcement. - Fixed-interval : reinforce the first response after a fixed time period. Animals on this type of schedule tend to response more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near. People check more frequently for the mail as the delivery time approaches.
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Christopher Reinemann
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