tioned insofar as cross reactions with apparently unrelated organisms have been

Tioned insofar as cross reactions with apparently

This preview shows page 230 - 232 out of 594 pages.

tioned insofar as cross-reactions with apparently unrelated organisms have been recognised. Bullock et al. (1980) observed large bacteria, in faecal samples of brook trout, which fluoresced with antiserum to Renibacterium. After studying authentic representatives of 44 Gram-positive bacterial taxa and 101 cultures from fish and water, Austin and Rayment (1985) reported false positive reactions with coryneform bacteria obtained from fish, a fish-pathogenic Mycobacterium spp., and Rothia dentocariosa. Yoshimizu et al. (1987) noted a cross-reaction between Pseudomonas and Ren. salmoninarum in iFAT. A 60 kDa heat shock protein (hsp60) of Chlamydia
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Diagnosis 209 psittaci migrated with the 57 kDa protein of Ren. salmoninarum, and may explain the cross-reactivity of polyclonal renibacterium antiserum (Wood et ai, 1995). Of course, antisera can be made more specific by cross-absorbing with these organisms. Rein- forcing a separate article (Toranzo et al, 1993) by using western blots, Bandin et al. (1993) reported a common antigen, i.e. the 57 kDa protein, between Cor. aquaticum, Car. piscicola and Ren. salmoninarum. Also, it was noted that some isolates of Ren. salmoninarum did not produce the 57 kDa protein (Bandin et al., 1993). This is interesting because, using the same strains, Mcintosh et al. (1996) could not find the 57 kDa protein in Cor. aquaticum or Car. piscicola. Also in contrast to Bandin and co- workers, Ren. salmoninarum strain K57 was found to produce the 57 kDa protein. Brown et al. (1995) produced evidence that bacteria other than renibacterium could cross-react with antiserum to Ren. salmoninarum. Moreover, these workers used PCR and confirmed the conclusion of Mcintosh et al. (1996) that Cor. aquaticum and Car. piscicola lacked the p57 antigen. Investment may be placed in the development of monoclonal antibodies, which should be totally specific for Renibacterium (Arakawa et al, 1987; Wiens and Kaattari, 1991). Evelyn (1978) contradicted the Utopian opinion of serology, by reporting that culturing was more sensitive than fluorescent antibody techniques for the detection of renibacteria in kidney tissue by a factor of 10:1. This theme was continued in a later study (Evelyn et al, 1981) when experiments were under- taken to determine whether or not there was correlation between culturing and fluorescent antibody based diagnoses of the BKD carrier state. Again, culturing was reported as more sensitive than fluorescent antibody methods (Evelyn et al., 1981). Nevertheless, from the work of Paterson and colleagues, it could not be explained what was present in the fish which gave a positive fluorescence test but which could not be cultured. Explanations include the presence of dead cells which retain the ability to fluoresce, anaerobes which would require specialized isolation procedures, fastidious aerobes, damaged, dormant or inhibited cells of renibacteria, or even inanimate particles which microscopically could be mistaken for bacteria.
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