Fundamental ideas underlying attribution and citation

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-Fundamental ideas underlying attribution and citation systems -both ideas and actual words are valuable creations and they can be appropriated (aka stolen) for many reasons -”We are like dwarfs on the shoulders of giants, so that we can see more than they, and things at a greater distance, not by virtue of any sharpness of sight on our part, or any physical distinction, but because we are carried high and raised up by their giant size” -Who first expressed this thought in writing? (Bernard of Chartres 12th c) -How do I know this? Why do I believe that this is correct? -Shapiro, Fred quotes giants’ shoulders -”The great sociologist Robert K. Merton wrote an entire book on the history of this aphorism. Based on his findings, The Yale Book of Quotations has the following” -Shapiro cites 2 sources (Robert Merton who wrote an entire book on the saying, and the Yale Book of Quotations (which he researched and wrote) -Fred Shapiro, editor of(The Yale Book of Quotations is the most complete, up-to-date, and authoritative quotation dictionary ever compiled. Used innovative research techniques to ensure that the most popular and eloquent quotations, especially modern and American ones often missed by other dictionaries, were included.) -Why should we care so much about where one little quote comes from? Who is harmed if this quote is misattributed to the wrong source? EVERYONE INVOLVED -When do I need to give credit? -Summaries, quotations, paraphrases=YES -Short key phrases = sometimes! -General info/common knowledge = no! -What is the APA system?: 1. An entire roadmap for writing a research report IN EVERY DETAIL 2. The specific method used to cite sources and give credit in that system -1. In-text citations (flags for readers; author’s name, year, page #) -2. Cumulative, detailed reference section at the end (full bibliographic info) -3. Correspondence b/t #1 and #2
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-Bibliographic basics: -full info includes: author(s) - last name, first initial, date of publication(these two together are the “flags”), title, publication/location, publishing info (if necessary), Web url, DOI (if available) -What is a DOI? Digital Object Identifier -Why does APA require DOI? As a means of improving the ability of readers to follow your references backwards - Articulate the role of the writer and list common roles of the reader in a standard research report Role of writer: Make judgments about readers’ needs & goals; it’s almost as if its a silent conversation that began a time ago; create a relationship that encourages them to see why it’s in their interest to read your paper Role of reader: playing parts/roles, you must understand writer’s role and reader’s role so that you can best give info; There are 3 roles. I have info for you; I can help you fix a problem; i can help you understand something better State the three common motivations for research and point out which one is most common in academic research To describe: 1. An interesting new finding/piece of info, 2. A solution to an important practical problem, 3. An answer to an important question most common in academic research
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