E honorary official symbolized last attempt to keep

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Falling Qing tries to woo overseas Chinese support, selling them titles (i.e. “honorary official”) - symbolized last attempt to keep empire together oUncertainty of 1890s - unsure of what China will become Instability, concern for China as a whole Chinese government thinking about foreign nationals as important group of people they should pay attention to People starting to think of themselves in terms of identities (i.e. Huaqiao as foreigners with ties to China but also to greater world) oFinal days (1900-1911) Lots of activities against Qing or nationalist movements led by Huaqiao Rise of Western ideas about republicanism oSun Yat-sen strongly influenced by republican ideology from US and socialism from Europe perpetuated revolutionary ideas eventually helped lead 1911 revolution and end of Qing dynasty
Version 4: Internal Factors: western influence trade spheres concessions Opium wars Sino-French war Sino-Japanese war (#1) Ryukyu incident (loss of power from central government) western troops (Tianjing Massacre, Boxer rebellion) External Factors: debt from wars drought famine central government loosing control rebellions boxers rebellion Nian rebellion Muslim rebellion Taiping rebellion Version 5: Collapse of Qing dynasty was led because of inability of the dynasty to face the challenges of modernization. External Factors: Western – trade spheres -Opium Wars : The british brok China’s positive balance of trade by ramping up opium imports smuggled into China. There was too much corruption when the Chinese officials relized the problem. Also lost Second Opium War to the British where China lost Canton and the establishment of a treaty port at Hong Kong. oChina opens 5 more ports to British trade oLimit taxes on British goods oPaid for the cost of the war oGave the Isle of Hong Kong to Britain Backward Imperialism: The last rulers of Qing Dynasty saw themselves as divine rulers of perfect nation and saw European inventions as useless. Therefore they did not industrialize as Japanese did, so they lacked behind.
1858: The British and French apply force in chian to obtain better trade privileges Treaty of Tianjin singned : legalized the Opium trade, opened more ports to foreign trade, surrendered Kowloon peninsula to Britain. Sino-Japan : China went to war with Japan over Korea and lost. Japan demanded the island of Taiwan and the Liaodong peninsula. Internal Factors: China’s unwillingness to reform, peasant unrest, corruption, and rapid population growth were problems China faced internally. Rapid population growth led to food shortage, which caused widespread starvation famine broke out all over the Chinese countryside as the land was overused -China’s government did not change to meet the new need of its people : The government became increasingly unable to perform functions like tax collection and corruption became commonplace. Rebellions- oTaiping rebellion was the biggest of all of the peasant rebellions where they desired to create “heavenly kingdom of great peace.” They aimed to remove the foreing Qing Dynasty who Hong accused of poisoning China from power. It was led by Hung Hsiu-ch’uan and was intolerane of Chinese culture. oBoxer Rebellion : 1896-1898 in Shantung, sparked by German advanced

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