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Paper 3 Final Draft

Byrd rudolph p and henry l gates jr jean toomer a

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Byrd, Rudolph P., and Henry L. Gates, Jr. “Jean Toomer: A Chronology”. Cane: Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism . By Jean Toomer. 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2011. 445-53. Print.
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13 Jung The chronology provided in this edition of Cane lays out a brief timeline of Toomer’s life. It begins when Toomer was born and ends when Cane was reissued in paperback for the first time. The chronology gives extensive information on Toomer’s whereabouts as he was writing, the schools he attended, the people he lived with, the people he met, and different other miscellaneous information. It also gives descriptions of when certain works were published and written. This chronology is useful in quickly looking up biographical information on Toomer. Compared to The Cane Years and the introduction written by Byrd and Gates, this chronology is more straightforward with the information. It was originally printed in another book The Lives of Jean Toomer: A Hunger for Wholeness, edited by Cynthia Earl Kerman and Richard Eldridge. Cynthia Kerman was an English professor at Villa Julie College. She wrote a biography on Kenneth Boulding, a Quaker economist, and collaborated with Richard Eldridge to write Jean Toomer’s biography. Richard Eldridge is a philosophy professor at Swarthmore College. He has written nine novels, one of which is the Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Literature . He also published thirty-seven articles in various journals. Byrd, Rudolph P., and Henry L. Gates, Jr. "Song of the Son." Introduction. Cane: Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism . By Jean Toomer. 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2011. xix-lxx. Print. This introduction, provided by Byrd and Gates, goes in depth into Toomer’s life. They extensively describe Jean Toomer’s background: his family, the start of his writing career, his life while he wrote Cane , and his personal beliefs. A large portion of the introduction is dedicated to talking about race and Toomer’s racial
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14 background. Byrd and Gates mention how difficult it was for Toomer to distinguish himself as one race versus another because both of his parents were mulatto. It is also mentioned how Toomer did not want to be associated with a specific race, rather he wanted to think of himself as solely American. Additionally, this introduction provides insight as to how Cane was written and the order in which it was written. A lot about Jean Toomer and Cane is revealed in this biographical essay. But they also offer an argument because they claim that Toomer tried to pass as being white. Rudolph Byrd was the Goodrich C. White professor of American studies at Emory University who focused on African American literature and the ideas of race and sexuality. He was also the director of a lot of African American Literature programs. Byrd is the author or editor of at least ten books, two of which regard Toomer. He has awards from five different universities. Henry Louis Gates Jr. is an esteemed scholar in African American culture. He has over fifty honorary degrees and numerous titles. He is the director
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