Especially with the growth of mass politics and media

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Especially with the growth of mass politics and media, western Europeans could also identify as part of a larger global entity, whether “overseas France,” or the British Empire and in the 20th century the British Commonwealth—each of which was assumed to have a unique mission and position in the world. After World War I, with the exception of the emergent Soviet Union, Europe was dominated by nation-states. In central and eastern Europe, some states were riven with conflicts, and minorities that found themselves in vulnerable positions turned to the international League of Nations for protection. During World War II, Germany sought to create a pan-European empire based on an extreme version of German national identity and power. During the second half of the 20th century, as Europeans recovered from the strain of two world wars, Western European empires fractured and transformed into new political units. As they reconceived their role in a postwar world, Europeans could now identify with larger transnational organizations, such as the European Coal and Steel Community, or the community of countries assembled under NATO or the Warsaw Pact. Europeans have increasingly identified as members of the EU, even as regional and national affiliations continue to call into question the idea of a shared European identity. Return to Table of Contents © 2017 The College Board AP European History Course and Exam Description 38 Thematic Learning Objectives
This reconception of Europe has not been without difficulties, as Britain’s late entry into the European community and subsequent decision to leave the EU illustrate. Europe as a concept has been and remains complex, evolving, and subject to changing perceptions, regulations, and legal frameworks. European identities since 1450 have been a fluid concept, with overlapping and non-competing identities enduring even in the age of nation-states. As new national entities form, merge, and in some instances disappear, these developments help shape popular understanding of what it means to be European. Learning Objectives Students are able to ... Relevant Topics in the Concept Outline NI-1 Explain how and why national identities were created, developed, and challenged. 1.1.II Invention of printing; spread of new cultural ideas 1.2.II Growing state control of religious institutions during the Reformation; challenges to state authority 1.2.III Growing religious, political, and economic competition between states 1.3.I Expansion and the enhancement of state power 1.3.III Competition between states for territories 1.5.I New ideas about state sovereignty and political institutions 1.5.III Struggles between monarchs and various corporate and minority language groups 2.1.I Absolutism and state centralization 2.1.II Challenges to absolutism and the creation of alternative political systems 2.1.IV French Revolution as a challenge to the existing social and political order 2.1.V Nationalist reactions to Napoleon 2.2.III Commercial rivalries 2.3.IV Enlightenment values; revival of emotion and

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