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Direct property taxes abolished fro citizens treated

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Direct property taxes abolished fro citizens Treated Spaniards worse than Greeks Considered the barbarians Broke treaties, lied, cheated etc. Guerilla warfare against Rome for decades Some consequences of Empire Economic fortunes of lower classes nose dive Before Punic Wars Italians owned farms War destroyed farmlands Veterans in cities, unemployed Become tenants of wealthy landowners Urban masses live in dire poverty Non-landowners cannot serve in army
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Abandoned land acquired by the wealthy Amass great plantations— latifundia Agriculture-cash crops, not subsistence Wine, grain, olives, cattle Growing chasm between poor and wealthy  Reform Leaders Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus The poor should be given grain and small plots of free land Resettle the poor on farms 133 BCE Tiberius ran for a 2 nd  term Murdered by the Senate & their clients Permanent change to Roman Politics First act of internal bloodshed Political careers not solely by based on influence with the aristocracy  Gaius 1321 BCE murdered—Martial Law Military Reformer A bit of Civil War between Rome and her allies Gaius Marius becomes Consul New Man  politically active but not from traditional ruling classes Recruited an army from the poor and homeless Maintained a professional standing army
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Helped him get elected to an illegal  6  consulships Paid with war loot and land when men mustered out Able to manipulate Senate Other generals followed—Sulla, Pompey, Julius Caesar, Mark Anthony, Octavian Sulla, governor of Asia, military threat to Senate Becomes dictator until 79 BCE to bring stability Steps down and restores republic Civil War & Dictators 50 years of jostling for power 50 years of civil wars 60 BCE the First Triumvirate Pompey, controlled Spain, used land to reward soldiers Crassus, controlled Syria, extremely wealthy Killed in battle 53 BCE Julius Caesar, controlled Gal (France), was told to return to Rome as a private citizen Defeated Pompey, and took over the entire empire, established himself as the dictator  for life. 44 BCE Julius Caesar was killed by Senate The Second Triumvirate Octavian Augustus Julius Caesar’s grand-nephew Controlled the west
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Loved Cleopatra, launched a propaganda against Marc Anthony Rome’s First Emperor Pretended Rome was a republic Established an elite guard Senate made decrees
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