Only way to answer questions about continuity/discontinuity of behaviour. Practice effects: children can become test-wise. Cohorteffects:developmental changes may be specific to that generation. Referto Selective Attrition.•Longitudinal Evidence on Warmth (Pettit et al., ‘97): Parent warmth associated w protection & survival•Longitudinal Research (ASS): No Attach Change: 12-16 mos - late adolescents & early adult hood (20s).If a child is insecurely attached @ age 1, by 21 they are most likely to maintain an insecure attachment (89% of participants), 7/11 participants who had a secure attachment, maintained it. Good therapy could have an impact, won’t help entirely cause problems at home. If major change in circumstances, attachment can change. EX:death of relative could cause change from a secure to a now insecure attachment (loss of a safe base), neg implications, esp if relative was primary attachment (mom). & grandparent/any relative moves in who was more emotionally available, creating a secure attachment•Love: External state, measured through attachment behaviours. Babies: anything they do to maintain physical proximity; smiling, touching, crawling, clinging, hugging, snuggling (attachment behaviour). •Low Control High Acceptance (2X2 PS): Permissive: indulgent parents. Very warm with little control.
Kids tend to be a bit more aggressive (never punished). Quite immature, don’t take responsibility. Tend to struggle with being independent. Externalize failures. •Low Control Low Acceptance (2X2 PS): Neglecting:Parents aren’t psychologically available. No rules, no warmth. Parents are quite rejecting, want nothing to do with kids. Insecure attachment. Socio-developmental issues, feeling insecure.. More likely to be anti-social & impulsive, highest likelihood of delinquency & aggressiveness. Parents aren’t interested in kids. Neglect is 1 form of child abuse – most neg outcomes.•Low Quality Attach: Refer to Internal Working Models•LowWarmth Families (PS): Higher risk for mental health, higher rate of suicide, opposite high warm families •Maintaining Social Order:Refer to Conventional Morality Stage 4. •Malnutrition- integrity of myelin can be poor, loses signal with neurons, slower communication, nurture can alter this. •Marshmallow Test (Effortful Control): Offering kids marshmallow but tell them if they wait, can receiveanother 1 later. If child can wait allotted amount of time, ass with high effortful control, predictor for success in future. Find ways for distraction, children attempting to delaygratification•Media Effects Research: Random assignment to violent programming/extensive video gaming? Cannot tell parents to give children something that’ll damage them long term. Use pre-existing groups instead of random assignment, find correlations (but cannot make causal statements). Concern; understanding if violent content is bad for children. Hard to study long term, easier to study short term (immediate impact of media) - difficult. If longitudinal, no random assignment, correlational. If experimental, data
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 19 pages?
- Fall '13