“ Abot ” is the Annang term for “nature”. “ Abot ” also refers to God as the ground and cause of being. Before we proceed, let us see other conceptions of “ abot ” below. “Abotic” Conceptions: “ Abot ” has many conceptions, nuances and variant meanings as follows: 1. “ Abot ” as Nature or Creation; 2. “ Abot ” as Life (Existence); 3. “ Abot ” as Destiny; 4. “ Abot ” as “Uwa” (Fate); 5. “ Abot ” as Condition; 6. “ Abot ” as Land; 7. “ Abot ” as Tragedy; 8. “ Abot ” as Time (and Space); 9. “ Abot ” as Nation; 10. “ Abot ” as Cosmos, World, Universe ( Arorobot, Unarod, Ukpobot, Ekondo ); 11. “ Abot ” as Creator (God); We shall take advantage of the last “abotic” conception as creator and deal with the metaphysical theme of 180
causality, named in this as work “ Abot ” ontology or “ abotology ”. 10.3 “Abot” Ontology or “Abotology” as Causality Causality is the disciplined discussion of the problem of the relation between cause and effect. Causality presupposes that every event has a cause. When one mentions the term ‘cause’ the correlative term ‘effect’ is generally involved. Cause is that which determines, provokes, influences an outcome which we call effect. A cause is that by which something (an effect) is produced. Aristotle developed the complete doctrine of causality. He distinguished four causes: material cause (the stuff with which a thing is composed), the formal cause (the form of shape that a thing takes), efficient cause (the agent responsible for bringing a thing into existence) the final cause (the end or purpose for which thing is made). In current times, the word ‘cause’ is restricted to the efficient cause. Discussions on the concept of causality after Aristotle are footnotes of his analysis. Causation is believed to be universal, uniform, and necessary. The statement, ‘every event has a cause” is taken to be of universal application since there is no event that has no cause. The universality of causation itself presupposes the uniformity of nature. This means that the same kinds of causes produce the same kinds of effects always and everywhere under the same conditions. A third concept associated with the concept of causation is the concept of ‘necessary connection”. It was believed that there was a necessary connection between an 181
event and its cause or, in other words between a cause and its effect, such that once the cause is present its effect, such that once the cause is present its effect must necessarily follow. Hume rejects the concept of necessary connection between cause and its effect. Hume pointed out that we do not perceive any such necessary connection, that it is not part of our empirical experience. If we do not perceive causality in our empirical experience, how then do we come to form the idea in our minds? Hume says it is derived from our habit of associating things that usually to go together in sequence (Omoregbe, 1999:23-24).
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- Summer '19
- Philosophy, Akwa Ibom State, mme Ikwo Afe Mbono Annang