169170 3 a yes words or phrases are vague if their

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169–170. 3. a) Yes. Words or phrases are vague if their meaning is unclear to the audience, in the context of the argument. In this passage, it’s not clear what “most important” means, nor “best science.” See p. 171. 4. a) Yes. Words or phrases are ambiguous if they have at least two distinct meanings to the audience and the arguer does not distinguish between them. In this passage, “physical” is ambiguous. It can mean “of or relating to the science of physics” or “made of material substance.” See pp. 171–172. Passage 5 1. b) No. A euphemism is any word or phrase that is used to reduce the emotional impact of an idea. In this passage, there are no euphemisms. See pp. 168–169. 2. b) No. Emotional language includes words and phrases that are intended to provoke an emotional reaction in the audience. In this passage, there is no emotional language. See pp. 169–170. 3. a) Yes. Words or phrases are vague if their meaning is unclear to the audience, in the context of the argument. In this passage, the term “good” seems vague. It might mean many things, including “beneficial” or “pleasant.” See p. 171. 4. b) No. Words or phrases are ambiguous if they have at least two distinct meanings to the audience and the arguer does not distinguish between them. In this passage, there are no ambiguous words or phrases. See pp. 171–172. Passage 6 1. a) Yes. A euphemism is any word or phrase that is used to reduce the emotional impact of an idea. In this passage, the phrase “a monster who lives beneath the world, who punishes us after death” is used instead of “Devil” or “Satan” or something more direct. See pp. 168–169. 2. a) Yes. Emotional language includes words and phrases that are intended to provoke an emotional reaction in the audience. In this passage, “childish superstition” and “nonsense” are emotional language. See pp. 169–170. 3. b) No. Words or phrases are vague if their meaning is unclear to the audience, in the context of the argument. In this passage, the meanings are clear. See p. 171. 4. b) No. Words or phrases are ambiguous if they have at least two distinct meanings to the audience and the arguer does not distinguish between them. In this passage, the meanings are clear. See pp. 171–172.
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