consumption improves the quality of the environment in Africa. Although the concept of EKC was not considered in the recent study of Alola & Sarkodie (2019), the study however incorporated the natural resource rent among other environmental determinants for the case of the European Union. Also, the study of Wang and Dong (2019) investigated the relationship between ecological footprint (i.e. a more composite indicator for environmental degradation), urbanization and economic growth for Sub-Saharan African countries over the period 1990 – 2014. The study adopted the Augmented mean group estimator and the corresponding findings suggest that urbanization, nonrenewable energy consumption are key determinants of environmental degradation in SSA countries. In a similar study conducted for European Union Sixteen (EU-16) countries (Alola et al., 2019; Bekun et al., 2019), natural resources rent and renewable energy consumption contribute to increase the quality of the environment. Given the recent trajectory of the literature after the seminal study of Kraft and Kraft, the studies have placed less emphasis on the outlined variables in the current study especially for the case of African countries. Accordingly, African countries have interesting energy dynamics. All the aforementioned variables provide far-reaching outcomes, with some studies confirming the EKC hypothesis (Saint et al., 2019; Gokmenoglu & Taspinar 2018; Katircioglu & Katircioglu 2018; Katircioglu et al. 2018 while a few others have failed to confirm the EKC hypothesis (Mukhopadhyay, 2008; Dietzenbacher & Mukhopadhyay, 2007). Yet the results from the literature are incomplete with the divergent empirical nexuses. Thus, the need to re-investigate the theme in Africa where little or no attention has been documented is timely and pivotal to the energy economic literature for both stakeholders and policymakers by the incorporation of urbanization and other macroeconomic indicators in the African context.
11 3. Data and Methodology 3.1 Data This investigation employs balanced annual panel data for selected thirteen (13) African states over the period 1980-2014. In this case, carbon dioxide (CO 2 is measured in kilotons) which is used as a proxy for carbon emissions is the dependent variable. Also, the independent variables employed are the gross domestic product per capita (GDPC measured in USD constant 2010), total natural resource rent (NRT measured as percentage of GDP), urbanization (URB is the urban population and ratio of total population), non-renewable energy consumption (NEC is measured as kilogram oil equivalent per capita), and electricity energy consumption (ELE measured in kilowatt per hour). The panel of selected African countries considered in this study is restricted to Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Cot e d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe, obviously due to data availability. Furthermore, the variable descriptions (the classification with units, sources of the variables), the common statistics, and the correlation properties of the aforementioned variables are respectively illustrated in Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3.
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- Summer '20
- Dr joseph
- World energy resources and consumption