DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS3management. Arcangelo and Peterson (2013) states that the main objective of diet are geared towards moderation of caloric intake with spacing of meals and snacks to manage glucose levels.These goals are often different from what is normally seen with diabetic patients, since they are often below their ideal body weight (Arcangelo and Peterson, 2013). Type 2 diabetes is a more common condition that is diagnosed in adulthood and is closelylinked to being overweight. Type 2 diabetes varies from type 1 because “its pathogenesis involves insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, elevated glucose production by the liver, or all these components” (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). Onset of type 2 is more gradual and often not as recognizable, however family history, age, weight, ethnicity, race, and lifestyle are all risk factors for the development (Arcangelo & Peterson 2013). Often, symptoms are present, yet go unnoticed due to them being so subtle, so it can take years before a person is diagnosed. Treatment and management of type 2 diabetes includes diet, exercise, oral medications and if necessary, injectable subcutaneous insulin to control glucose levels. Ideally, the patient is control glucose levels with diet and exercise, but common oral medications include“sulfonylureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, α-glucosidase inhibitors, meglitinide analogs, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and incretins” (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). Injectable subcutaneous insulin is used only is diet, exercise and oral medication management fails. Gestational diabetes occurs if a women develops a glucose intolerance while pregnant. Arcangelo & Peterson (2013) state that human placental lactogen plays a pivotal role in triggering glucose intolerance. During prenatal checkups around the 24 to 28 week mark the female will have a routine oral glucose tolerance test to determine if she has gestational diabetes.If left undetected, complications for the fetus include macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, and
DIABETES AND DRUG TREATMENTS4neonatal hypoglycemia; so it is crucial that the mother maintains control of her glucose levels while pregnant (Diabetes/Metabolism Research & Reviews, 2015).