99% of human relationships have been face-to-face in the past 1. Was a physical thing 2. Humans evolved having face to face relationships 3. Now we have relationships "at a distance' 1. People aren't physically next to us 2. Now we have to have some face-face contacts but not many in order to have emotional support 4. Does social media use cause or relieve depression? 1. Very high users: have more psychological depression 1. But they can get more social support at a distance 2. We don’t know for sure Lecture 14~ Healing Options Lecture 15~ Health Care Providers Lecture 16~ Health Care Providers Lecture 17~ Health Care Providers Lecture 18~ Health Care Providers Textbook Notes Chapter 5~ Social Factors and Disease Cooley, Thomas, and Goffman: Symbolic Interaction: ● Cooley ○ Cooley’s Looking-Glass Concept: We see ourselves in our imagination as we believe we appear to others, we see in our imagination the other person’s judgement, we then experience “self-feeling,” such as satisfaction, pride, humiliation, etc. ● Thomas ○ Thomas states that if an individual’s definition of a situation remains constant, behavior will be orderly (not when rival definitions appear)
○ The same crisis will not produce the same effect uniformly in all people. ○ Outcome is based on an individual's’ definition and how one comes to terms with it… (perception) ● Goffman ○ Goffman’s “life as theatre” approach: For social interaction to be possible, people need information about the participants coming from their appearance, past experiences with similar individuals, social setting, and information a person communicates about themselves. ○ A “face” is an image of self that is projected by an individual to others (everyone’s pattern of verbal and nonverbal acts) ○ Maintenance of face is a condition of interaction, not its objective ○ Self is a sacred object, thus stress arises when the self is challenged. ● All three symbolic interaction perspectives ○ Perception of the individual is the key variable in the stress experience ■ How people feel about themselves (Cooley) ■ How people define situations (Thomas) ■ How people manage impressions (Goffman) Durkheim: The Larger Society: ● Durkheim focuses states that if a society is strongly integrated, individuals are held firmly under control, reinforcing community values. ● “Social facts” constrain individuals and shape us, such as laws, values, norms, etc. ● Suggests suicide is not entirely a matter of free choice by individuals, but instead a social fact. There are 3 types: ○ Egoistic suicide: detached from society ○ Anomic suicide: dislocation of normative systems ○ Altruistic suicide: too strongly integrated in society, in need of escape ● Typology of suicide suggests that society induces enough stress onto an individual to cause them to take their lives.
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- Spring '07