Seek gender reform and legislative changes raise

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Seek gender reform and legislative changes Raise awareness at all levels of society Radical Feminists: Do not think the existing system can make appropriate change and seek a women centered society Postmodern Feminists: Seek to attack gender order directly by deconstructing categories of sex, sexuality, gender War: armed conflict between nations or politically distinct groups Exposure to brutality and killing often causes dehumanization , process of reducing people to objects that do not deserve to be treated as humans. Emphasis on following procedures o American Vietnam vets were told to kill children bc “little ones are the soldiers of tmrw” o PTSD (recognized in 1980) Terrorism : directed against a civilian population is now a common threat ie 9/11 or ISIS attacks Defining Families Historically, the state has determined what a family is and who is entitled to family benefits 2006 Census: o 84% of Canadian’s live in some kind of census family o Common-law couples, lone-parent families and married couples w/o children are on the rise Traditional Family: two opposite-sex parents & their children with working father & stay @ home mom Today, only 1/10 families in Canada are traditional Sharp increase in non-traditional family arrangements Until the 1969’s/1980’s sociologists defined the family as two or more people who consider themselves related by blood, marriage or adoption Household: people who occupy the same housing unit, may or may not be family Family Structure: Nuclear: Husband, wife & children Extended: nuclear family + other relatives (uncles, grandparents, etc) Family Orientation: Family in which an individual grows up Family of Procreation : family formed when a couple have their first child Monolithic Structure Referred to by Western sociologists Supports a very limited view of family life, exclused hundreds of thousands of people Leads to a conservative bias with implicit notions of normal and natural Margarit Eichler and most Western sociologists reject this idea o Implicitly assumes that there is only one standard family type o Families which are not “normal” (or nuclear) are deviant Marriage : legally recognized mating arrangements with specific rights / obligations Monogamy: one spouse Serial Monogamy: More than one spouse but sequentially not simultaneously Polygamy : several spouses Polygyny: men have more than one wife Polyandry: women have more than one husband o George Murdock’s study (1930’s) o Polygyny was permitted in 70% of societies, polyandry in less than 1% o Practiced by men of prestige, high status, and wealth o Often described as a form of human rights abuse o Most middle east & Northern African countries permit it with exception of Israel, Turkey & Tunisia
o Case of Blackmore: married 25 times, had 121 children, 47 were born in 6 year period o Polygamy is a crime in Canadian Criminal Code under s. 293 Endogamy: people should marry within their own group Exogamy: people must marry outside their group Systems of Descent: the way people trace kinship over generations Preindustrial Societies:

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