Communication Technologies and Standards_IEEE.pdf

B system reliability robustness and availability

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B. System Reliability, Robustness and Availability Providing the system reliability has become one of the most prioritized requirements for power utilities. Aging power infra- structure and increasing energy consumption and peak demand are some of the reasons that create unreliability issues for the power grid [26]. Harnessing the modern and secure communi- cation protocols, the communication and information technolo- gies, faster and more robust control devices, embedded intel- ligent devices (IEDs) for the entire grid from substation and feeder to customer resources, will significantly strengthen the system reliability and robustness [26]. The availability of the communication structure is based on preferred communication technology. Wireless technologies with constrained bandwidth and security and reduced installation costs can be a good choice for large-scale smart grid deployments [24]. On the other hand, wired technologies with increased capacity, reliability and secu- rity can be costly [24]. To provide system reliability, robustness and availability at the same time with appropriate installation costs, a hybrid communication technology mixed with wired and wireless solutions can be used. C. Scalability A smart grid should be scalable enough to facilitate the op- eration of the power grid [3]. Many smart meters, smart sensor
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534 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 7, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2011 nodes, smart data collectors, and renewable energy resources are joining the communications network. Hence, smart grid should handle the scalability with the integration of advanced web ser- vices, reliable protocols with advanced functionalities, such as self-configuration, security aspects. D. Quality-of-Service (QoS) The communication between the power supplier and power customers is a key issue of the smart grid. Performance degra- dation like delay or outage may compromise stability, therefore, a QoS mechanism must be provided to satisfy the communica- tions requirements (for example high-speed routing) and a QoS routing protocol must be applied in the communications net- work. This incurs two important questions unique to smart grid. How to define the QoS requirement in the context of smart grid. How to ensure the QoS requirement from the home appli- ance in the communications network. To answer the first question, the detailed mechanism of power price, based on the dynamics of the load, must be investigated. Then, a reward system is built for the home appliance based on the power price and the utility function of the appliance, thus obtaining the impact of delay and outage on the reward of the home appliance. Finally, the QoS requirement is derived by optimizing the reward [27]. To answer the second question, routing methodologies meeting the derived QoS requirement are focused on. Due to the requirements of high computing and storage capabilities imposed by the heterogeneity of the smart grid, multiple QoS-aware routing within multiple (more than 2) constraints must be considered (for example a greedy algorithm
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