Factors th at influence th e rate of infiltration

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Factors th at influence th e rate of infiltration include: Topography Soil a nd rock type Amount a nd intensity of precipitation Vegetation Land us e - A spring forms when water flowing in a n a quifer intersects th e Earth’s surface
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- The rate and direction of groundwater movement in an aquifer in part depend on both the hydraulic gradient and they type of material found in the aquifer - Nearly half the population of the US uses groundwater as a primary source of drinking water - The cost of water pumping and exploration reduces the amount of groundwater available - Only a few % of the U.S.’s total groundwater resource has been depleted - Withdrawal of groundwater by pumping from wells can reduce stream flow, lower lake level, and reduce water in wetlands o Water pollution in a stream moves through the streambed and eventually pollutes the groundwater below - Karst topography causes many problems including: o Water pollution in areas sinkholes are used for waste disposal o Cavern systems that are likely to collapse and damage buildings and roads o Drying springs - Types of water use: o Offstream use – water that is removed or diverted from its source o Consumptive use – type of offstream use where water isn’t returned to the stream or groundwater resource immediately o Instream use – water that is used is not withdrawn from its source - Water use on a global basis is about 70% for agriculture, 20% for industry, and 10% for urban and rural homes
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