Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica,80, (1989), 64-67. TD associated with gait, speech difficulties, and psychosocial impairment.6. D.V. Jeste, "Study of neuropathologic changes in the striatum following 4, 8 and 12 months of treatment with fluphenazine in rats," Psychopharmacology, 106 (1992), 154-160. This study found a lower density of large neurons in the striatum of "middle-aged" rats given neuroleptics.7. Herbert Spohn, “The effect of attention/information processing impairment of tardive dyskinesia and neuroleptics in chronic schizophrenics.” Brain and Cognition 23 (1993), 28-39.TD exacerbates cognitive impairment. 8. Emmanuelle Pourcher, “Organic brain dysfunction and cognitive deficits in young schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia.” Brain and Cognition 23 (1993), 81-87. This is a study of patients under 40. The researchers conclude that TD is associated with cerebral dysfunction, which in turn is associated with degree of exposure to neuroleptic drugs.9. Thomas Gualtieri. “The problem of tardive akathisia,” Brain and Cognition 23, 102-109, 1993.
Gualtieri writes that akathisia may be thought of as a disease of the basal ganglia, much like Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and Wilson’s disease.MRI studies have found basal ganglia lesions in TD patients, especially in the caudate nucleus. Basal ganglia diseases all cause behavioral instability and intellectual impairment (even psychosis and dementia).
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- Summer '07
- Schizophrenia, Antipsychotic, dyskinesia