Sharper focus on english language proficiency needs

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Sharper focus on English language proficiency needs of ELLs . This content-based operational definition of language proficiency also helped to define what was meant by “correspondence” between English language proficiency standards and the new content standards. This was a concept that came about through regulatory actions by the Obama administration in providing waivers to states from compliance with the adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements under NCLB. In that memo, one requirement for the waiver was for state ELP standards to be aligned to the state content standards. Most states applied for the waiver, and then developed (through the World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment (WIDA; ) consortium and through other state collaborative endeavors) ELP standards using a framework for ELP standards created through the leadership of the Council of Chief State Schools Officers (2012). This framework essentially divided the ELP standards into a two-stage model, in which the first stage paid attention to students in their beginning phases of English language development, and the second stage elaborated on performance expectations on explicit language demands within anchor standards in the content areas. Adoption of this new framework for ELP standards helped sharpen the focus of the ELP assessments, focusing their efforts on basic levels of English performance and general academic language performances, while the content-embedded language assessments were moved to the content assessments. Increased appreciation of good formative assessment practice as language support. During the past five years, the field has come to a realization that formative assessment practice is good instructional practice rather than a good measurement tool, as advocated by Heritage (2010). Given the realization that language shapes how content knowledge is shaped, taught, and used for demonstrating understanding, formative assessment practices have keyed into the role of helping the teacher understand the relationship between the student’s readiness to engage with the language of the content being taught. Savvy teachers have appropriated the many technology tools made available by advances in the field of natural language processing to support these practices. Another major development that was only fantasized in 2012 is the availability of massive amounts of text in digital form, including all textbooks available on the new computing platforms through publishers, Apple’s iBooks™ initiative, and open-source materials through efforts by the Creative Commons (). Furthermore, integration of multimedia resources and the revolution in voice recognition technology has blurred the traditional distinctions between written and spoken language. Searching through texts and tags in a virtually infinite universe of r e- sources in multiple languages is now a reality, and part of the “Big Data” problem of computer science (Carstensen, 2012) We can now envision student products of learning being continuous multimedia

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