spent more time in Waimea—the preferred anchorage for visiting ships. Also the complex of heiauat Wailua lost its significance after the abolishment of the kapusystem. By the mid-1800s, only a small population, decimated in part by disease, existed in the Wailua River Valley within a mile of the sea. Indigenous farmers would be displaced within decades by larger scale commercial agriculture and associated immigrant laborers. (pp. 44–45)The shift and decline in population could explain why few Känaka filed LCA(Land Commission Award) claims during the Mahele (land division of 1848–1853), and not all of these claims were awarded. When it was the religious, economic and social center of Kaua‘i, more land would have been under cultivation, not only for lo‘iand kula, but other traditional crops (i.e. kulacrops), such as wauke, noni, bananas, and timber trees. The
197HO‘OMANAWANUI|HANOHANO WAILUANUIAHO‘äNOfact that so few claimed land in Wailua at the time of the Mahele may reflect Wailua’s changed status after trading ships and missionaries arrived. Communities grew up around the new social and economic centers, especially on the south side of the island, and drew people away from their former establishments. (Bushnell, Shideler, & Hammatt, 2004, p. 40)The impact of the development of a Western capitalist economy devastated the community of Wailua. In 1895, Eric A. Knudsen, a rancher for the south side of the island, noted the extensive cultivation of kalo and rice; by 1935, ethnologist E. S. Craighill Handy (1940) noted that no kalo was under cultivation, and that Wailua’s agricultural capabilities were severely underutilized. Bennett’s 9-month long archaeological survey (1928–1929), while not specific to Wailua, bemoaned the fact that a great number of heiau and other sites were already destroyed by planta-tions and road construction on the island (Bennett, 1971).Wailua uka is generally known today as “Wailua Homesteads,”12an expansive valley stretching between the mountainous boundaries of Waiÿaleÿale, Makaleha, Nounou, and Kälepa. An alternative traditional name for this region is Kaipuhaÿa. A number of moÿolelo, heiau, and other sites connect Kaipuhaÿa to Wailuanuiahoÿäno. The poetical connections of this and other places in Wailua are evident throughout Hawaiian thought and writing.Wailua, WrittenKaiu’s letter in Ke Kumu Hawaiiis the first mention of Wailua in Hawaiian publi-cations. Unfortunately, the next mention of Wailua is two months later, when Kaiu’s death was reported by two separate sources to the newspaper (Ke Kumu Hawaii, October 14, 1835, p. 164). The following year, an article on some of the ancient aliÿi of Kauaÿi was published in the same paper, including mention of Keaka and Kanaloa as aliÿi of Wailua (March 30, 1836, p.