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Superior (dorsal)Anterior(cephalad)Inferior (ventral)(b)(a)Posterior(caudal)Anterior(ventral)ProximalDistalPosterior(dorsal)Superior (cephalad)Inferior (caudal)Figure 1.2 Anatomical terminology describing body orientation and direction.(a)With reference to a human. (b)With reference to a four-legged animal.A C T I V I T Y 2 Practicing Using Correct Anatomical TerminologyBefore continuing, use a human torso model, a human skel-eton, or your own body to specify the relationship between the following structures when the body is in the anatomical position.1. The wrist is _______________ to the hand.2. The trachea (windpipe) is _______________ to the spine.3. The brain is _______________ to the spinal cord.4. The kidneys are _______________ to the liver.5. The nose is _______________ to the cheekbones.6. The thumb is _______________ to the ring finger.7. The thorax is _______________ to the abdomen.8. The skin is _______________ to the skeleton. ■Body Planes and SectionsThe body is three-dimensional, and in order to observe its internal structures, it is often helpful and necessary to make use of a section,or cut. When the section is made through the body wall or through an organ, it is made along an imaginary surface or line called a plane.Anatomists commonly refer to three planes (Figure 1.3), or sections, that lie at right angles to one another.Sagittal plane:A sagittal plane runs longitudinally and di-vides the body into right and left parts. If it divides the body into equal parts, right down the midline of the body, it is called a median,or midsagittal, plane.Frontal plane:Sometimes called a coronal plane,the fron-tal plane is a longitudinal plane that divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts.MARI2192_11_C01_pp001-014.indd 410/29/12 12:31 PM
1The Language of Anatomy5Transverse planeMedian (midsagittal) planeFrontal planeLiverSpleenPancreasAortaVertebralcolumnSpinal cordSubcutaneous fat layerBody wallRectumIntestinesLeft andright lungsLiverHeartStomachArm(a) Frontal section (through torso)(b) Transverse section (through torso, inferior view)(c) Median (midsagittal) section Figure 1.3 Planes of the body with corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.MARI2192_11_C01_pp001-014.indd 510/29/12 12:31 PM
16Exercise 1Transverse plane:A transverse plane runs horizontally, di-viding the body into superior and inferior parts. When organs are sectioned along the transverse plane, the sections are com-monly called cross sections.On microscope slides, the abbreviation for a longitudinal section (sagittal or frontal) is l.s. Cross sections are abbrevi-ated x.s. or c.s.A sagittal or frontal plane section of any nonspherical object, be it a banana or a body organ, provides quite a differ-ent view than a transverse section (Figure 1.4).A C T I V I T Y 3 Observing Sectioned Specimens1. Go to the demonstration area and observe the transversely and longitudinally cut organ specimens (kidneys). Pay close attention to the different structural details in the samples because you will need to draw these views in the Review Sheet at the end of this exercise.