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In Poland, in 2008, a coordinated campaign under the slogan 'Girls, study at technical universities!' (Dziewczyny napolitechniki!) was run by the Education Foundation Perspektywy and the Conference of Rectors of TechnicalUniversities to promote engineering and technology programmes among young women. As part of 'The Open Day –For Girls Only', 14 technical universities prepared special programmes, including classes in laboratories, debates,meetings with women researchers and female students following degree programmes in engineering and science.The campaign was successfully repeated in 2009.In the United Kingdom, there are national initiatives to counter gender imbalance in certain subject areas in thetertiary sector, notably science and engineering. One of the best known is Women into Science and Engineering(WISE). The WISE campaign collaborates with a range of partners to encourage girls of school age to value andpursue science-, technology-, engineering- and construction-related courses in school or college as well as to moveon into related careers.In Norway, attributing extra points for entry into universities and university colleges is an instrument used in relation tofields of study with a gender imbalance. The Ministry has established national centres in mathematics and in sciencewhich, together with other partners, have a mandate to encourage and recruit students, especially women, intoscience subjects.101
Gender Differences in Educational Outcomes8.2 Vertical segregationThere are notable gender differences regarding participation in and graduation from tertiary education(ISCED 5-6). In general, more women than men are enrolled in higher education (see EACEA/Eurydice2009a, Figures C16 and F6). The exception is Turkey, where only 43 % of students are women. Onaverage in the EU-27, women comprise 55 % of students enrolled at tertiary level; in Iceland the figurerises to 64 %. Across Europe even higher proportions of women complete their studies and graduate: 59% of graduates are female. In Estonia and Latvia, the proportion of females who graduate is even higher,approximately 70 %.The average proportion of women enrolled in tertiary education has been gradually increasing over recentyears in the EU-27 (2 % increase from 1998 to 2006). This pattern is similar in most European countries,with an increase of more than 5 % in the Czech Republic, Malta, Romania and Slovakia. Bulgaria andCyprus were the only countries where female participation rates decreased between 1998 and 2006 (7 %and 4 % respectively). The proportion of female graduates rose even faster, with an increase of 4 % onaverage across the EU-27 from 1998 to 2006; in Germany, Hungary and Iceland the increase was morethan 8 %.