F 2 phenotype male female bronze eyes 3720 3800 red

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F2PhenotypeMaleFemaleBronze Eyes3,7203,800Red Eyes1,2601,320Cross II: True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All theF1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below.F2PhenotypeMaleFemaleNormal Wings1,1601,320Stunted Wings3,6003,820Cross III: True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal-winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below.F2PhenotypeMaleFemaleBronze Eyes, Stunted Wings2,3602,220Bronze Eyes, Normal Wings220300Red Eyes, Stunted Wings260220Red Eyes, Normal Wings2,2402,180(a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explainhow the data support your conclusions for each cross.57
(b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explainhow the data support your conclusions.(c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the island’s fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above.3. Charles Darwin proposed that evolution by natural selection was the basis for the differences that he saw in similar organisms as he traveled and collected specimens in South America and on the Galapagos Islands.(2001 FRQ question)a. Explainthe theory of evolution by natural selection as presented by Darwin.b. Each of the following relates to an aspect of evolution by natural selection. ExplainTHREE of the following.Convergent evolution and the similarities among species (ecological equivalents) in a particular biome (e.g., tundra, taiga, etc.)Natural selection and the formation of insecticide-resistant insects or antibiotic resistantbacteriaSpeciation and isolationNatural selection and behavior such as kinesis, fixed-action-pattern, dominance hierarchy, etc.Natural selection and heterozygote advantage4. Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species.(a) The evolution of a species is dependent on changes in the genome of the species. IdentifyTWO mechanisms of genetic change, and explainhow each affects genetic variation.(b) Based on the data in the table below, drawa phylogenetic tree that reflects the evolutionary relationships of theorganisms based on the differences in their cytochrome camino-acid sequences and explainthe relationships of theorganisms. Based on the data, identifywhich organism is most closely related to the chicken and explainyour choice.(c)Describe TWO types of evidence—other than the comparison of proteins—that can be used to determine thephylogeny of organisms. Discussone strength of each type of evidence you described.

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